peace (being at peace)

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated into English as “peace” (or “at ease”) is (back-) translated with a variety of idioms and phrases:

complete verse (James 3:18)

Following are a number of back-translations of James 3:18:

  • Uma: “People who like harmony and seek harmony, their behavior follows God’s will.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Whoever is a person who reconciles/causes-to-be-good his companions he is figuratively like a farmer/person-habitually-planting. What he figuratively plants is his deeds that please his fellow-men. He does not quarrel and his conduct towards his companions is good. The outcome/result of that what he planted is straight/righteous deeds.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Peace is like a seed. Those who settle conflicts plant it, and righteous activities are the harvest it brings.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Those who get-along-together while at-the-same-time they stop-from-quarrelling their fellows who are quarrelling, it’s as if they plant peace and orderliness, and when that-aforementioned which they have planted grows, its fruit is a righteous way-of-life.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And as for those who can make a way which can cause reconciliation, when they persevere for the good being-friends of their fellowman, righteousness is the result of it.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “He earnestly tries to make peace with those who want to argue with him, then they can live good lives afterwards.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Rincón Zapotec “And those who endeavor to set in quietness the things that happen, they live peaceably in order that all of them may be righteous.”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “If we make peace among our companions, then we will be at peace and will continually do good.”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “And when we considerately reconcile our fellow men, it is as if we sowed seed that multiplies well more deeds that are good.” (Source for this and two above: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.)

righteous, righteousness

The Greek and Hebrew terms that are translated in English mostly as “righteous” as an adjective or personified noun or “righteousness” (also as “justice”) are most commonly expressed with concept of “straightness,” though this may be expressed in a number of ways. (Click or tap here to see the details)

Following is a list of (back-) translations of various languages:

  • Bambara, Southern Bobo Madaré, Chokwe (ululi), Amganad Ifugao, Chol, Eastern Maninkakan, Toraja-Sa’dan, Pamona, Batak Toba, Bilua, Tiv: “be straight”
  • Laka: “follow the straight way” or “to straight-straight” (a reduplicated form for emphasis)
  • Highland Puebla Nahuatl, Kekchí, Muna: “have a straight heart”
  • Kipsigis: “do the truth”
  • Mezquital Otomi: “do according to the truth”
  • Huautla Mazatec: “have truth”
  • Yine: “fulfill what one should do”
  • Indonesian: “be true”
  • Navajo: “do just so”
  • Anuak: “do as it should be”
  • Mossi: “have a white stomach” (See also Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling.”)
  • Nuer: “way of right” (“there is a complex concept of “right” vs. ‘left’ in Nuer where ‘right’ indicates that which is masculine, strong, good, and moral, and ‘left’ denotes what is feminine, weak, and sinful (a strictly masculine viewpoint!) The ‘way of right’ is therefore righteousness, but of course women may also attain this way, for the opposition is more classificatory than descriptive.”) (This and all above from Bratcher / Nida except for Bilua: Carl Gross; Tiv: Rob Koops; Muna: René van den Berg)
  • Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac: “live well”
  • Mezquital Otomi: “goodness before the face of God” (source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl: “the result of heart-straightening” (source: Nida 1947, p. 224)
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “entirely good” (when referred to God), “do good” or “not be a debtor as God sees one” (when referred to people)
  • Carib: “level”
  • Tzotzil: “straight-hearted”
  • Ojitlán Chinantec: “right and straight”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “walk straight” (source for this and four previous: John Beekman in Notes on Translation November 1964, p. 1-22)
  • Aari: The Pauline word for “righteous” is generally rendered by “makes one without sin” in the Aari, sometimes “before God” is added for clarity. (Source: Loren Bliese)
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “having sin taken away” (Source: Nida 1952, p. 144)
  • Venda: “nothing wrong, OK” (Source: J.A. van Roy in The Bible Translator 1972, p. 418ff.)
  • Ekari: maakodo bokouto or “enormous truth” (the same word that is also used for “truth“; bokouto — “enormous” — is being used as an attribute for abstract nouns to denote that they are of God [see also here]; source: Marion Doble in The Bible Translator 1963, p. 37ff.).
  • Guhu-Samane: pobi or “right” (also: “right (side),” “(legal) right,” “straightness,” “correction,” “south,” “possession,” “pertinence,” “kingdom,” “fame,” “information,” or “speech” — “According to [Guhu-Samane] thinking there is a common core of meaning among all these glosses. Even from an English point of view the first five can be seen to be closely related, simply because of their similarity in English. However, from that point the nuances of meaning are not so apparent. They relate in some such a fashion as this: As one faces the morning sun, south lies to the right hand (as north lies to the left); then at one’s right hand are his possessions and whatever pertains to him; thus, a rich man’s many possessions and scope of power and influence is his kingdom; so, the rich and other important people encounter fame; and all of this spreads as information and forms most of the framework of the people’s speech.”) (Source: Ernest Richert in Notes on Translation 1964, p. 11ff.)

See also respectable, righteous, righteous (person), and She is more in the right(eous) than I.