The Greek that is translated in English as “eternal life” is translated in various ways:
Lloyd Peckham explains the Mairasi translation: “In secret stories, not knowable to women nor children, there was a magical fruit of life. If referred to vaguely, without specifying the specific ‘fruit,’ it can be an expression for eternity.”
See also eternity / forever and salvation.
The Greek that is often rendered in English as “to be converted” or “to turn around” is (back-) translated in a number of ways:
- North Alaskan Inupiatun: “change completely”
- Purepecha: “turn around”
- Highland Totonac: “have one’s life changed”
- Huautla Mazatec: “make pass over bounds within”
- San Blas Kuna: “turn the heart toward God”
- Chol: “the heart turns itself back”
- Highland Puebla Nahuatl: “self-heart change”
- Pamona: “turn away from, unlearn something”
- Tepeuxila Cuicatec: “turn around from the breast”
- Luvale: “return”
- Balinese: “put on a new behavior” (compare “repentance“: “to put on a new mind”)
- Tzeltal: “cause one’s heart to return to God” (compare “repentance”: “to cause one’s heart to return because of one’s sin”)
- Pedi: “retrace one’s step” (compare “repentance”: “to become untwisted”)
- Uab Meto: “return” (compare “repentance”: “to turn the heart upside down”)
- Northwestern Dinka: “turn oneself” (compare “repentance”: “to turn the heart”) (source for this and all above: Bratcher / Nida)
- Central Mazahua: “change the heart” (compare “repentance”: “turn back the heart”) (source: Nida 1952, p. 40)
- Western Kanjobal: “molt” (like a butterfly) (source: Nida 1952, p. 136)
- Latvian: atgriezties (verb) / atgriešanās (noun) (“turn around / return”) which is also the same term being used for “repentance” (source: Katie Roth)
- Isthmus Mixe: “look away from the teaching of one’s ancestors and follow the teachings of God”
- Highland Popoluca: “leave one’s old beliefs to believe in Jesus” (source for thsi and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
The Hebrew that is translated in English as “(let the 10 sons) . . . be hanged” is translated in North Alaskan Inupiatun in such a manner that it’s clear that the bodies which will be hanged, as the men are already dead (see Esther 9:10 and 12).
The Greek that is translated in English as “rooster crowed” or “cock crowed” is translated in North Alaskan Inupiatun as “the bird called.” (Source: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
The Greek that is translated with “deny himself” or “deny oneself” is according to Bratcher / Nida “without doubt one of the most difficult expressions in all of Mark to translate adequately.” These are many of the (back-) translations:
The Hebrew that is translated as “enemies” in English is translated into North Alaskan Inupiatun with a term that implies that it’s not just someone who hates you, but one who wants to do you harm.
See also enemy (1 Samuel 19:17).
The Greek that is translated as “crown of thorns” in English is translated in Navajo as “a hat of a plant that had sharp thorns,” in North Alaskan Inupiatun as “a head-gear of prickly branches,” in Aguaruna as “a thing to crown him with out of thorns,” and in Chol as “woven thorns.”
See also crown of life and complete verse (James 1:12).
The Hebrew that is often translated as “holy ones” is translated in North Alaskan Inupiatun as “special, chosen (ones).”
See also holy ones.