complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Uma: “‘Why do we look at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the splinter of wood in our own eye, we do not know is there!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (singular) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (singular) fellow, and you (singular) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (singular) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you(s) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

cardinal directions

The cardinal directions “east” and “west” are easy to translate into Mano (Mann) here since the language uses “where the sun comes up” and “where the sun goes down.” For “north” the translator had “facing toward the sun rising to the left,” and for “south” she had “facing toward the sun rising to the right.” So the listener had to think hard before knowing what direction was in view when translating “to the north and south, to the east and west.” So the verse was very long. It was shortened by saying simply “all directions.” Likewise, Yakan has “from the four corners of the earth” (source: Yakan back-translation) or Western Bukidnon Manobo “from the four directions here on the earth” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo back-translation).

Kankanaey is “from the coming-out and the going-away of the sun and the north and the south” (source: Kankanaey back-translation), Northern Emberá “from where the sun comes up, from where it falls, from the looking [left] hand, from the real [right] hand” (source: Charles Mortensen), Amele “from the direction of the sun going up, from the direction of the sun going down, from the north and from the south” (source: John Roberts), Ejamat “look up to see the side where the sun comes from, and the side where it sets, and look on your right side, and on your left” (source: David Frank in this blog post).

In Lamba, only umutulesuŵa, “where the sun rises” and imbonsi, “where the sun sets” were available as cardinal directions that were not tied to the local area of language speakers (“north” is kumausi — “to the Aushi country” — and “south” kumalenje — “to the Lenje country”). So “north” and “south” were introduced as loanwords, nofu and saufu respectively. The whole phrase is “kunofu nakusaufu nakumutulesuŵa nakumbonsi.” (Source C. M. Doke in The Bible Translator 1958, p. 57ff.)

See also cardinal directions / left and right.

complete verse (John 1:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:1:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The Word was living when there was still nothing at all. And that Word lived in the same place God did. And that Word was God himself.”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “When the world began, the person who is the Word was already present. He was with God and the person who is the Word was God.”
  • Chol: “In the beginning of the world there already was the Word. This Word already was with God. This Word was (and still is) God.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Long ago before anything was created, the one who is titled the Word of God already was. This Word of God, he already was with God and he is God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Before the world and heavens/sky was laid-down/spread-out (i.e. existed), there was already Jesus who is called Word/Speech of God. This one referred to as Word, he was already there in the presence of God. Not just in the presence of God but on the contrary, this Word who is Jesus, he indeed is the one who is this God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The Son of God makes it known how God is. When the world was made, already he was living. He was in fellowship with God. He also is God.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 21:16)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 21:16:

  • Uma: “At that time, all people will hate you because of your following Me. Even your parents, relatives, family, and friends will give you to your enemies. Some of you will be killed.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Even your parents, your siblings, your relatives and your friends will hand you over to your opponents. And some of you they will kill.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And at that time, even your parents, your own siblings, your relatives and your friends, they will turn you over to the courts. And there will be some of you that they will kill.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “At that time also, even your parents, your siblings, your relatives and your friends, they will betray you to the officials so that they will kill some of you.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “You really will-be-betrayed-to-death by your parents, siblings, your other relatives and friends, and some of you will be killed.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (2 Thessalonians 2:15)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Thessalonians 2:15:

  • Uma: “So because of that, relatives, strengthen your faith, hold strongly to all that we taught you, both what we said with lips, and what we write in letters.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Therefore, my brothers, cause your trust to be firm/steadfast and really keep/store (in heart and mind) the teaching that we (excl.) taught you when we (excl.) were there and the teachings in the letter that we (excl.) sent to you.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And because of this, brothers, strengthen your believing and hold tight to all we have taught you by means of our preaching to you there and by means of our letters to you.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Therefore brothers, make-firm in your minds the teaching we (inc) inherited which we (excl.) taught you while we (excl.) were there (near addressee) and in what we (excl.) wrote you so that you will be-sure-to follow it continually without going-astray.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Therefore, siblings in believing, hopefully (you will) hold fast in that your believing/obeying the truth which we (excl.) taught to you there is sturdy, teaching which we (excl.) spoke or which we (excl.) wrote.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Therefore now, my brethren, make your faith firm. Believe the word I taught you. This is the word I told you when I went to where you live, it is the word I wrote in a letter and sent to you, they say the same.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 22:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 22:10:

  • Uma: “He said to them: ‘When you enter into the town, you will meet with a man who is carrying a water-fetching-container after fetching-water. Follow him coming to the house he enters.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “He said to them, ‘When you have entered the town, you will meet a person carrying an earthenware-jar with water. Follow him to the house where he enters,” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus answered, ‘When you arrive in the town, you will meet a man carrying a jar filled with water. Follow him to the house that he enters.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then he said, ‘Go to the city. When you arrive there, you will meet a man who has gone to fetch-water. Follow him to the house he enters,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘Like this is what you are to do,’ said Jesus, ‘go to the city. When you arrive there, you’ll see a man shouldering a water-drawing jar. Follow him to the house where he will go.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Timothy 1:12)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 1:12:

  • Uma: “I say thank you to our Lord Kristus Yesus, for he appointed me as his worker, he gave/gives me strength and he said that I was fit to do/handle his work.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “I thank Isa Almasi, our (incl.) Leader, the one who gives me strength so that I can do my work/doing. I thank him because I was considered trustworthy by him and I was commissioned by him to work for him.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “I thank our Lord Jesus Christ, for He has given me strength to carry out this which He has given to me. He considered me to be faithful, and because of this He appointed me to be His servant.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “I thank Cristo Jesus our Lord who strengthens me to do this work, because he has counted me as a trustworthy person and he has appointed me to serve him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I really thank our Lord Cristo Jesus very much who gave me the strength for this work. I am really happy because he regarded me as being trustworthy, and he chose me to be his servant.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Our Lord Jesus Christ gave me strength that I speak his word. I thank him because he looked well upon me and appointed me to do the work he gave me.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 1:7)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 1:7:

  • Uma: “Salomo was the progenitor of Rehabeam, Rehabeam was the progenitor of Abia, Abia was the progenitor of Asa,” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “David was the father of Solomon; Solomon’s mother was the wife before of Uriah. Solomon was the father of Rehoboam, and Rehoboam was the father of Abijah. Abijah was the father of Asa.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Solomon was the father of Rehoboam who was the father of Abias who was in-turn the father of Asa.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Solomon was the father of Roboam. Roboam was the father of Abias, and Abias the father of Asa.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Solomon was the father of Rehoboam. Rehoboam was the father of Abijah. Abijah was the father of Asa.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 22:42)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 22:42:

  • Uma: “He said: ‘Father, if you desire/want, please take-away-from-me [lit., remove-from-my-path] this suffering that is almost striking me. But not My desire/will that happens, it is better Your own will.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “He said, ‘O Father, if you wish/if it is your will do not leave me to be persecuted. But not my wish is to be followed but your wish.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And he said, ‘My Father, if it’s what You want, then don’t allow me to pass through this torment which you have destined for me; however, what I want should not be followed but rather what you want.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Father,’ he said, ‘if you (singular) want, please permit that I not endure this coming suffering of mine. But it shouldn’t be what I want but rather but you (singular) want that is fulfilled.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘Father,’ he said, ‘if it’s possible/acceptable with you, hopefully you won’t cause-to-go-ahead this hardship/suffering which I am approaching. But not my will is what will be followed/obeyed, but on the contrary your will.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Timothy 3:9)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 3:9:

  • Uma: “They must hold on well to the teaching that was delivered to us by God and follow that teaching with all sincerity [lit., with holy-holy their hearts].” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “They ought to be steadfast towards the true teaching about Isa Almasi which has been made-known/revealed by God. They also ought to do nothing evil so that their mind/thinking/conscience will not be troubled.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “They must hold tightly their belief without doubting the doctrines which were revealed to us by God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “They must also utterly believe the true teaching concerning the faith which God has made-known to us while at-the-same-time their consciences (must) be clean.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “It’s necessary that they hold fast to the truth which was made known by the Lord, and that they live really in harmony with this truth.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “That word accompanying their faith is the word which was not known about before and this is what they must teach with all their hearts.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)