The Greek that is translated as “give thanks” in English is Tzotzil as “saying to God: Because of you.” (Source: B. Moore / G. Turner in Notes on Translation 1967, p. 1ff.)
The Greek that is rendered as “in his right mind” or “sound-minded” in English is translated as “his mind had returned” (Amganad Ifugao), “his heart was sitting down” (Tojolabal), “his head was healed” (Chicahuaxtla Triqui), “his mind was straightened” (Tzotzil), “with a clear mind again” (Javanese), “come to his senses” (Indonesian) (source for this and all above: Bratcher / Nida), “come to his cleanness/purity” (Marathi), “(his) thoughts having become right” (Ekari), “his intelligence having-become clean again” (Sranan Tongo), “having-mind” (Batak Toba), “settled his mind” (Tae’), “settled/fixed” (Balinese) (source for this and five above: Reiling / Swellengrebel), or “had well-split vision” (Mairasi) (source: Enggavoter 2004).
The Greek that is translated as “worries (or: cares) of the world (or: this age)” in English is (back-) translated in a number of ways:
- Kekchí: “they think very much about these days now”
- Farefare: “they begin to worry about this world-things”
- Tzeltal: “their hearts are gone doing what they do when they pass through world” (where the last phrase is an idiomatic equivalent for “this life”
- Mitla Zapotec and San Mateo del Mar Huave: “they think intensely about things in this world”
- Eastern Highland Otomi and Pamona: “the longing for this world”
- Tzotzil: “they are very occupied about things in the world”
- Central Tarahumara: “they are very much afraid about what will happen in the world”
- Shilluk: “the heavy talk about things in the world”
See also end of the age / end of the world.
The Greek that is translated into English as “vain” or “in vain” in English is (back-) translated in various ways:
- Cashibo-Cacataibo: “say I am important, but they do not believe it”
- Kekchí: “has no meaning when they praise me”
- Toraja-Sa’dan, Pamona: “uselessly”
- Copainalá Zoque: “uselessly they remember”
- Farefare: “their religion is their mouth”
- Southern Subanen: “their worship has no meaning”
- Tzotzil: “they say they love me, but this means nothing”
- Southern Bobo Madaré: “they worship me but they do not mean what they say”
- Central Mazahua: “it is of no value that they honor me”
- San Blas Kuna: “their thinking is not in their hearts” (source for this and above: Bratcher / Nida)
- Mairasi: “tribute of theirs for me [which] will-be-on-their-own” (source: Enggavoter 2004)
- Guhu-Samane: “with the front teeth of their mouths they worship me” (“‘In vain’ caused puzzlement [because] why should their efforts to worship God produce no results, try as they may? [But the idiom] ‘with the front teeth of their mouths they worship me’ comes from the picture of one who is making a pretense at eating food, hence their deceit is apparent.’ Source: Ernest L. Richert in Notes on Translation December 1963: p. 4-7; reprinted in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.)
The Greek that is translated as “anger” in English in this verse is translated with a variety of solutions (Bratcher / Nida says: “Since anger has so many manifestations and seems to affect so many aspects of personality, it is not strange that expressions used to describe this emotional response are so varied).
- Chicahuaxtla Triqui: “to be warm inside”
- Mende: “to have a cut heart”
- Mískito: “to have a split heart”
- Tzotzil: “to have a hot heart”
- Mossi: “a swollen heart”
- Western Kanjobal: “fire of the viscera”
- San Blas Kuna: “pain in the heart”
- Chimborazo Highland Quichua: “not with good eye”
See also God’s anger.
During the translation of the New Testament into Huixtán Tzotzil, translation consultant Marion Cowan found that questions where the answer is obvious, affirmative rhetorical questions, as well questions raising objections tended to cause confusion among the readers. So these are rendered as simple or emphatic statements.
Accordingly, John 18:35 reads “Pilate said to him, I am not a Jew.”
Source: Marion Cowan in The Bible Translator 1960, p. 123ff.
The Greek that is translated as “in the last days” in English is translated as “there will be a day” in Eastern Highland Otomi, as “when the world is about to turn around” in Isthmus Mixe, as “when the time comes that the sky will soon perish” in Lalana Chinantec, as “when it will nearly be time for the world to come to an end” in Chichimeca-Jonaz, as “while the last day is near” in Tzotzil, and as “close to when the end comes” in Huichol. (Source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
The Greek that is translated as “Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? ” or similar in English is translated in Huixtán Tzotzil as “You mistakenly think that if you receive baptism God will not punish you, you mistakenly think.” Huixtán Tzotzil frequently uses the verb -cuy to express “to mistakenly think something” from the point of view of the speaker. (Source: Marion M. Cowan in Notes on Translation 20/1966, pp. 6ff.)
(To view the different translations of this term in a simplified graphical form on a new page, click or tap here.)
The German Good News Bible (Die Bibel im heutigen Deutsch) (1st edition: 1968, 2nd edition: 1982, 3rd edition: 1997) says this about the translation of the Greek expressions that in English are often translated as “kingdom of God” or “kingdom of heaven” respectively:
“An example for how a term evolved is the rendering of ‘heavenly kingdom’ or ‘kingdom of God.’ A verbatim translation will be misunderstood by most readers today: as if it talks about a kingdom that is located in heaven, when in reality it refers in the Bible to God being the ruler, to that area in which that rule has been realized and everything that human beings can expect because of that. Dependent on the context, the term is therefore translated differently in this present version: When it focuses on the presence of God’s kingdom it is rendered as ‘God establishes his rule’ (Gott richtet seine Herrschaft auf), when the focus is on the future it is translated as ‘Once God finalizes his creation (or ‘work’) . . . ‘ (Wenn Gott sein Werk vollendet . . .), and when the focus is on that finished creation it is ‘God’s new world’ (Gottes neue Welt).” (p. 299)
The respective translation choice in that German translation:
- kingdom (of God / heaven) (presence of God’s rule)
- kingdom (of God / heaven) (God’s finalized creation in the future)
- kingdom (of God / heaven) (God’s new world)
Likewise in the Gurung translation the term was also, depending on context, rendered in four different ways:
- God’s power at work in the world,
- the personal response to God, in obedience and receiving blessing,
- God’s future open ruling of the world,
- the ultimate blessings of God’s rule in heaven.
(Source: Warren Glover in The Bible Translator 1978, p. 231ff. — here you can also find a comprehensive list of examples where which translation was applied.)
Following is a list of (back-) translations from other languages:
- Tzeltal: “persons like these will reach God’s government” (as in Mark 10:14 and Luke 18:16: “the Kingdom of God belongs to those”) or “the jurisdiction of God” (in the sense of where God has the authority)
- Copainalá Zoque: “like God to rule over”
- San Miguel El Grande Mixtec: “agree to God reigning over”
- Kekchí: “power (or authority) of God”
- Laka: “God’s commanding”
- Javanese: “the rule of God”
- Huave: “where God rules”
- Huastec: “God as ruler”
- San Blas Kuna: “God’s government”
- Navajo: “what God has charge of”
- Sayula Popoluca: “to have God rule over”
- Tzotzil: “to have God as chief”
- Highland Puebla Nahuatl: “the leadership of God”
- Wayuu: “where God is chief” (this and examples above in Bratcher / Nida)
- Fuyug “God’s clan”
- Mono: “sana lala’aha nang” – “area of chiefly rule”
- Martu Wangka: “The Father looks after his own relatives” (source for this and the two preceding: Carl Gross)
- Caribbean Javanese: Kratoné Allah (“God’s seat (of a king)”)
- Sranan Tongo: Tiri fur Gado (“the Ruling of God”) or Kownukondre fur Gado (“King’s land of God”)
- Eastern Maroon Creole: A Nyun Tii fu Massa Gadu / Saramaccan: Di Njunjun Tii u Gadu (both: “the New ruling of God”) (source for this and 2 above: Jabini 2015)
- Umiray Dumaget Agta: “protectorate of God” (source: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
- Lalana Chinantec: “how God is the boss of people’s hearts”
- Chichimeca-Jonaz: “God rules as chief”
- Chuj: “everything which is in God’s hand” (source for this and two above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
In Mairasi, a language “where people would rather say something in a new way than in an old way,” there are a number of translations, including “Great Above One’s (=God) rule,” “His power,” “His control,” or “His place of authority/power.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
In Q’anjob’al, the translators stumbled on an additional difficulty. Newberry and Kittie Cox (in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 91ff.) explain: “‘The kingdom of God’ may be translated ‘where God supervises’ (or literally ‘guards’). However, in Mark 10:15 and Luke 18:17 it is not possible to speak of ‘receiving the kingdom of God,’ for this would imply that one simply takes over the responsibility for guarding God’s country while He rests. Accordingly, the translation is adapted to meet the cultural and linguistic requirements of the language by the form ‘receive God as king.’
See also your kingdom come.
The Greek that is translated as “submit to God” in English is translated as “let God be in charge of your hearts” in Tzotzil, “calm down before God” in Guhu-Samane, “obey God” in Mezquital Otomi, “give oneself over to God” in Sayula Popoluca, and “stick close to God” in Alekano (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).
See also not submit to God’s righteousness.