it is finished

For the Greek that is translated with an equivalent of “It is finished (or: completed)” in most English Bible translations a perfect tense is used that has no direct equivalent in English. It expresses that an event has happened at a specific point in the past but that that event has ongoing results. The English “Expanded Translation” by Kenneth S. Wuest (publ. 1961) attempted to recreate that by translating “It has been finished and stands complete.”

Irish uses yet a different system of tenses, resulting in these translations:

  • Atá sé ar na chríochnughadh (Bedell An Biobla Naomhtha, publ. early 17th century): “It is upon its completion”
  • Tá críoch curtha air (Ó Cuinn Tiomna Nua, publ. 1970): “Completion is put on it”
  • Tá sé curtha i gcrích (An Bíobla Naofa, publ. 1981): “It is put in completion”

Source for the Irish: Kevin Scannell

In Ojitlán Chinantec it is translated as “My work is finished,” in Aguaruna as “It is completely accomplished,” and in Mezquital Otomi as “Now all is finished which I was commanded to do.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)

Artist Willy Wiedmann rendered this scene this way:

Image taken from the Wiedmann Bible. For more information about the images and ways to adopt them, see here .

counselor

The Greek that is translated in English as “counselor” or similar is translated as “(person who can) cause him (who is so wise) to become wise” in Tzeltal and “(person) who has directed him along the road” in Mezquital Otomi. (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

baptize with the Holy Spirit

The Greek that is translated in English as “baptize with the Holy Spirit” is translated in Ixcatlán Mazatec as “(baptize so that) the Holy Spirit will come upon/enter you” (source: Robert Bascom) and in Mairasi as “wash with the Holy Spirit” (“water” baptism is “wash with water”) (source: Enggavoter 2004).

Other languages translate as follows:

  • Rincón Zapotec: “be baptized with the Holy Spirit the Holy Spirit will come to be with you”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “God’s Holy Spirit will possess you”
  • Chuj: “God’s Spirit will be given to you”
  • Mezquital Otomi: “be baptized with the power of the Holy Spirit”
  • Mayo: “receive the Holy Spirit in the same way you receive baptism”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “the Great Spirit will enter your hearts” (Source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

See also Holy Spirit and baptism / baptize.

devout

The Greek that is often translated in English as “devout” is translated in Lalana Chinantec as “who revered God,” in Chichimeca-Jonaz as “who obey and worship God,” in Eastern Highland Otomi as “that remembered God,” in San Mateo del Mar Huave as “worshipers of God,” in Tzotzil as “they were zealously doing God’s word they thought,” in Coatlan Mixe as “they comply with all Jewish customs” (esp. Acts 2:5) and in Mezquital Otomi as “very much believed what they had been taught about God.” (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

In Chichewa, “devout men” in Acts 8:2 is anthu ena okonda Mulungu or “some people who loved God” (interconfessional translation, publ. 1999). (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 90)

humble, lowly

The Greek that is usually translated as “humble” or “lowly” in English is translated in Eastern Highland Otomi as “one who doesn’t elevate himself,” in Yatzachi Zapotec as “those who think they aren’t worth much,” in Alekano as “those who stay low” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.), in Mezquital Otomi as “poor brothers,” in Isthmus Zapotec as “the one is little honored,” in Highland Totonac as “just ordinary people,” and in Yatzachi Zapotec as “poor people who have nothing” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.).

See also humble (mind).

proper worship, spiritual worship

The Greek that is translated as “spiritual worship” or “proper worship” or similar in English is translated as “the way you really ought to serve God” in Miahuatlán Zapotec and “worship God with mind and heart” in Mezquital Otomi. (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

desires of the flesh

The Greek that is often translated as “desires of the flesh” in English is translated in Ixcatlán Mazatec as “human desires” (source: Robert Bascom), in Mezquital Otomi as “the desires of our old life,” in Tzeltal as “doing what your bodies want,” and in Huehuetla Tepehua as “doing the things that your thoughts like (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.).

In Enlhet it is translated as “wantings of the innermost.” “Innermost” or valhoc is a term that is frequently used in Enlhet to describe a large variety of emotions or states of mind (for other examples see here). (Source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 24ff. )

See also flesh (human nature).

receive the gift of the Holy Spirit

The Greek that is translated “receive the gift of the Holy Spirit” or similar in English is translated as “receive the gift of God which is the Holy Spirit” in Eastern Highland Otomi, “God will give his Spirit to you” in Chuj, “God will cause his Holy Spirit to possess you” in Teutila Cuicatec, “the Holy Spirit will come into your souls with his power” in Desano, “you will receive the Holy Spirit, Father God will give you that” in San Mateo del Mar Huave, and “God will send the Holy Spirit to live with you” Mezquital Otomi. (Source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

See also Receive the Holy Spirit.

practice hospitality

The Greek that is translated as “practice hospitality” or similar in English is translated as “treat strangers kindly” in Yatzachi Zapotec, as “be brotherly to those who want to stay a while in your houses” in Huehuetla Tepehua, as “open up your houses that those who come on the road should enter” in Chicahuaxtla Triqui, as “show the goodness of your heart to as many as arrive at your houses” in Tzeltal, and as “give rest to people” in Mezquital Otomi. (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

See also hospitality.

mercy

The Hebrew and Greek terms that are typically translated as “mercy” (or “compassion”) in English are translated in various ways. Bratcher / Nida classify them in (1) those based on the quality of heart, or other psychological center, (2) those which introduce the concept of weeping or extreme sorrow, (3) those which involve willingness to look upon and recognize the condition of others, or (4) those which involve a variety of intense feelings.

Here are some (back-) translations: