gave up his spirit

The Greek that is often translated as “he gave up his spirit” in English is translated in a variety of ways:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “And then he died”
  • Aguaruna: “His breath went out”
  • Navajo: “He gave back his spirit”
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “He breathed his last”
  • Chol: “He caused his spirit to leave him”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “He sent away his life breath” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Kankanaey: “He entrusted his spirit to God” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “released his spirit” (lit. caused it to spring away) (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “His spirit/breath broke” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “His breath snapped” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

justification, justify

The Greek that is translated as “justify” in English is translated into Tzotzil in two different ways. One of those is with Lec xij’ilatotic yu’un Dios ta sventa ti ta xc’ot ta o’ntonal ta xch’unel ti Jesucristoe (“we are seen well by God because of our faith in Jesus Christ”) (source: Aeilts, p. 118) and the other is “God sees as righteous” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

Other (back-) translations include:

bless(ed)

The Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic that is translated into English as “(to) bless” or “blessed” is translated into a wide variety of possibilities.

The Hebrew term barak (and the Aramaic term berak) also (and originally) means “to kneel” (a meaning which the word has retained — see Gen. 24:11) and can be used for God blessing people (or things), people blessing each other, or people blessing God. While English Bible translators have not seen a stumbling block in always using the same term (“bless” in its various forms), other languages need to make distinctions (see below).

In Bari, spoken in South Sudan, the connection between blessing and knees/legs is still apparent. For Genesis 30:30 (in English: “the Lord has blessed you wherever I turned”), Bari uses a common expression that says (much like the Hebrew) , ‘… blessed you to my feet.'” (Source: P. Guillebaud in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 189ff.)

Other examples for the translation of “bless” when God is the one who blesses include:

  • “to think well of” (San Blas Kuna)
  • “to speak good to” (Amganad Ifugao)
  • “to make happy” (Pohnpeian)
  • “to-cause-to-live-as-a-chief” (Zulu)
  • “to sprinkle with a propitious (lit. cool) face,” (a poetic expression occurring in the priests’ language) (Toraja Sa’dan) (source for this and above: Reiling / Swellengrebel)
  • “give good things” (Mairasi) (source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • “asking good” (Yakan) (source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • “praised, saying good things” (Central Yupik) (source: Robert Bascom)
  • “greatly love” (Candoshi-Shapra (source: John C. Tuggy)
  • “good luck — have — good fortune — have” (verbatim) ꓶꓼ ꓙꓳ ꓫꓱꓹ ꓙꓳ — ɯa dzho shes zho (Lisu). This construction follows a traditional four-couplet construct in oral Lisu poetry that is usually in the form ABAC or ABCB. (Source: Arrington 2020, p. 58)

In Tagbanwa a phrase is used for both the blessing done by people and God that back-translates to “caused to be pierced by words causing grace/favor” (source: Tagbanwa Back Translation).

Ixcatlán Mazatec had to select a separate term when relating “to people ‘blessing’ God” (or things of God): “praise(d)” or “give thanks for” (in 1 Cor. 10:16) (“as it is humans doing the ‘blessing’ and people do not bless the things of God or God himself the way God blesses people” — source: Robert Bascom). Eastern Bru also uses “praise” for this a God-directed blessing (source: Bru back translation) and Uma uses “appropriate/worthy to be worshipped” (source: Uma back translation).

When related to someone who is blessing someone else, it is translated into Tsou as “to speak good hopes for.” In Waiwai it is translated as “may God be good and kind to you now.” (Sources: Peng Kuo-Wei for Tsou and Robert Hawkins in The Bible Translator 1962, pp. 164ff. for Waiwai.)

Some languages associate an expression that originally means “spitting” or “saliva” with blessing. The Bantu language Koonzime, for instance, uses that expression for “blessing” in their translation coming from either God or man. Traditionally, the term was used in an application of blessing by an aged superior upon a younger inferior, often in relation to a desire for fertility, or in a ritualistic, but not actually performed spitting past the back of the hand. The spitting of saliva has the effect of giving that person “tenderness of face,” which can be translated as “blessedness.” (Source: Keith Beavon)

See also bless (food and drink), blessed (Christ in Mark 11:9), and I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse.

horn of salvation, mighty savior

The Greek that is translated literally as “horn of salvation” and more idiomatically as “mighty savior” in most English versions is translated along those lines in many languages as well. In Uab Meto, however the term for “horn” is also used metaphorically for “hero” and in Balinese the term for “tusk,” which suggests “champion/hero” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel).

In Uma, it is translated as “a powerful War chief who brings salvation” and in Una as “a very powerful Person to us who will rescue people” (source: Dick Kroneman).

shield

The Hebrew that is translated in English as “shield” is translated in Uma as “protect from arrows.” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 475)

complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Uma: “‘Why do we look at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the splinter of wood in our own eye, we do not know is there!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (singular) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (singular) fellow, and you (singular) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (singular) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you(s) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

brothers - up to this day I have lived my life with a clear conscience before God

The Greek that is translated in English as “brothers, up to this day I have lived my life with a clear conscience before God” or similar is translated in Uma as “My relatives! My heart is chicken-egg smooth! Until this day, I consider that there is no fault of mine in God’s sight.” (Ni kwityabwe e, minob aryi kuboka arub ababyi nira Er Imtamnyi biryi arungsurur to nirya kununun. Ara, ni kanya dam aryi, ‘Malyi kun dinyi nirya bai donokman,’ tenen bikdandoka kununun ati ebman.).

“There is no specific term in Uma for ‘conscience,’ (see also conscience) so this idiom of saying that one’s heart is ‘chicken-egg smooth’ explains the meaning in an idiomatic way.” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 502)

complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 1:64)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 1:64:

  • Uma: “At that time, suddenly he was able to speak again, and he praised God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then immediately Jakariya could speak and he praised God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And immediately Zechariah was able to speak, and he praised God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Right then Zekarias’ dumbness was removed and he began-to-speak praising God.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well, at that same time, Zacarias was able to speak again, and at once he praised God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Acts 22:9)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 22:9:

  • Uma: “As for my companions, they saw that shining as well, but they did not know what that speaker said to me earlier.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Na, my companions saw the light,’ said Paul, ‘but they did not understand what the voice was saying to me.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “As for my companions, they saw the brightness, but they did not hear anyone talking to me.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Now as for my traveling-companions, they saw what-flashed, but they didn’t hear what the speaker said.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “As for my companions, they saw that light, but they couldn’t distinguish the words being said to me.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (1 John 2:19)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 John 2:19:

  • Uma: “Those enemies of Kristus are people who were with us formerly, but actually they were not our companions. That’s why they left from our fellowship. If they had really been our companions, they would have stayed with us. But they left [emphatic] from our fellowship, that’s why we know that there wasn’t one of them that was on our side.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “These who oppose Almasi have followed us (incl.) in the beginning. But they have left us (incl.) because they were not truly of one liver with us (incl.). If they had really been of one liver with us (incl.), they would have remained with us (incl.). But they left so that it would be clear that they really were not of one liver with us (incl.).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Now as for these enemies of Christ, they are not our true companions, and that’s the reason why they left us (incl.). If they had been our true companions, they would not have left us. Because of their leaving, we (incl.) can know that they were not our true companions.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Those-ones who are opposing, they were joined-to/belonged to us previously, but they were not our true fellow believers, so they left. If it were true that they were our fellows, they would not have left. But it was God’s intention that they leave so that it would be thoroughly seen that none of them was a proper companion of ours.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “As for these ones who are opposing, even though they were indeed included with us in the past, they weren’t harmonizing with us with true harmony. Because if they were really harmonizing with us, of course they would hold fast as our friends. But since they separated from us, of course it’s clear that none of them really belong with us.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Those wh are against Christ are not truly our fellow-believers, therefore they have left us. If they had truly been our fellow-believers, then they would walk together with us. But they left us in order that it would be quite apparent that they are not truly our fellow-believers.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “The people that are doing contrary to Jesus Christ went out from among us, but not wholeheartedly (sincerely/genuinely) were they doing together with us. If they had been wholeheartedly doing together with us they would still be together with us. But they went out in order that it became clear that they are not truly one with us.”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “And the enemies of Christ, are some who left us (where we are) but they were not really our fellow-believers. Because if they really had believed alike with us, we would have all remained together (in the same place). But some left, so it was known that some were not really our fellow-believers.”
  • Tzotzil: “Those who are the enemies of Christ right now, they were with us. Now they have gone out because their hearts were not the same as ours. If their hearts had been the same as ours, they would still be with us. Because they left, thus it appears that not all of us were of the same heart/mind.” (Source for this and two above: John Beekman in Notes on Translation 12, November 1964, p. 1ff.)