cares of the world, worries of this age

The Greek that is translated as “worries (or: cares) of the world (or: this age)” in English is (back-) translated in a number of ways:

  • Kekchí: “they think very much about these days now”
  • Farefare: “they begin to worry about this world-things”
  • Tzeltal: “their hearts are gone doing what they do when they pass through world” (where the last phrase is an idiomatic equivalent for “this life”
  • Mitla Zapotec and San Mateo del Mar Huave: “they think intensely about things in this world”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi and Pamona: “the longing for this world”
  • Tzotzil: “they are very occupied about things in the world”
  • Central Tarahumara: “they are very much afraid about what will happen in the world”
  • Shilluk: “the heavy talk about things in the world”

See also end of the age / end of the world.

amazed, astonished, marvel

The Greek that is translated as “astonished” or “amazed” or “marvel” in English is translated in Pwo Karen as “stand up very tall.” (In John 5:20, source: David Clark)

Elsewhere it is translated as “confusing the inside of the head” (Mende), “shiver in the liver” (Uduk, Laka), “to lose one’s heart” (Mískito, Tzotzil), “to shake” (Southern Bobo Madaré), “to be with mouth open” (Panao Huánuco Quechua) (source: Bratcher / Nida), “to stand with your mouth open” (Citak) (source: Stringer 2007, p. 120), “ceasing to think with the heart” (Bulu), or “surprise in the heart” (Yamba) (source for this and one above: W. Reyburn in The Bible Translator 1959, p. 1ff.).

In Mark 5:20 and elsewhere where the astonishment is a response to listening to Jesus, the translation is “listened quietly” in Central Tarahumara, “they forgot listening” (because they were so absorbed in what they heard that they forgot everything else) in San Miguel El Grande Mixtec, “it was considered very strange by them” in Tzeltal (source: Bratcher / Nida), “in glad amazement” (to distinguish it from other kinds of amazement) (Quetzaltepec Mixe) (source: Robert Bascom), or “breath evaporated” (Mairasi) (source: Enngavoter 2004).

spirit / flesh

The Greek terms that are translated “spirit” and “flesh” are a fundamental contrast, but one which is variously expressed in different languages. Often, however, “spirit” is equivalent to “heart” (Eastern Highland Otomi, Loma, Guerrero Amuzgo, Highland Puebla Nahuatl), and “flesh” may be rendered as “body” (Guerrero Amuzgo, Highland Puebla Nahuatl, Tzeltal) or “you yourself” (Central Tarahumara).

The following translations are illustrative of the contrastive expressions: “your hearts are ready but your bodies are weak” (Highland Puebla Nahuatl), “your heart is strong but you yourselves are not strong” (Central Tarahumara), “your heart has strength, but your body does not have strength” (Tzeltal), “your heart desires to do good, but your heart is weak,” in which “heart” must be used in both clauses since it not only stands for the center of the personality, but is also the symbol of typical human nature (Loma). (Source for this and all above Bratcher / Nida)

In Guhu-Samane an idiomatic expression with “your desire is there, but sleep has slain your body” is used. (Source: Ernest Richert in Notes on Translation December 1963: p. 4-7; reprinted in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.)

tradition

The Greek that is translated as “tradition” in English is translated in Kekchí as “the old root-trunk” (in which the life of a people is likened to a tree), in Central Tarahumara, as “to live as the ancients did,” in North Alaskan Inupiatun as “sayings passed down from long-ago times,” in Navajo as “what their fathers of old told them to follow,” in Toraja-Sa’dan as “the ordinance maintained by the forefathers,” in Tzeltal as “word that has been kept from the ancients” (source for this and all above Bratcher / Nida), and in Gumuz as “the life of your fathers” (source: Loren Bliese).

In Obolo it is translated as orọmijọn̄: “the deeds of the ground” (source: Enene Enene).

glorify God

The Greek that is translated as “glorify God” in English is rendered as “to wake God up” in Guerrero Amuzgo.

Other translations are “say that God is very great” (Central Tarahumara), “how good God is, they said” (Tzotzil), “to speak about God as good” (Tzeltal), “to give God a great name” (Highland Puebla Nahuatl), “to give God highness” (Kipsigis), “to take God out high” (in the sense of “to exalt”) (Huautla Mazatec), “to make great, to exalt” (Toraja-Sa’dan, Javanese), “to lift up God’s brightness” (Kpelle), “to show God to be great” (Central Pame), “to make God shine” (Wayuu), “to make God’s name big” (Huastec), “to make God important” (Isthmus Zapotec) (source for this and above: Bratcher / Nida), or “say to God: You are of good heart” (Huichol) (source: Nida 1964, p. 228).

In Waama this is translated as “make God’s name big.” (For the translation into Waama, five categories of verb doxazo and the noun doxa were found that were all translated differently, see glorify (reveal God’s or Jesus’ glory to people)).

In Shipibo-Conibo it is translated as “to brag about God” (“This may strike some at first as being an unspiritual approach, but it surely is Pauline, for Paul used the word ‘to brag’ when he declared his confidence in Jesus Christ and in the salvation of the world which God wrought through His Son.”) (Source: Nida 1952, p. 162)

go in peace

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “go in peace” into English is an idiomatic expression of farewell which is translatable in other languages as an idiomatic expression as well: “go with sweet insides” (Shilluk), “rejoice as you go” (Central Mazahua), “go in quietness of heart” (Chol), “go happy” (Highland Puebla Nahuatl), “being happy, go” (Central Tarahumara), or “go and sit down in your heart” (Tzeltal).

parable

The Greek that is translated as “parable” in English is translated in other languages in a number of ways:

See also image and figures of speech.

complete verse (John 8:36)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 8:36:

  • Ojitlán Chinantec: “Therefore if the Son of God liberates you, you will be truly liberated.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “I am the Son of my Father. If I free you from your servanthood, you truly won’t be servants.”
  • Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac: “You are like bought ones and the Son of God is able to free you and thus you will be able to rule yourselves.”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “And if the Son of God cause you to get out from under the foot of evil so you are no longer like slaves, then truly you will get out from under its foot.”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “So if the Son will save you, you will really be saved.”
  • Central Tarahumara: “. . . If I shall help you so that you no longer have to do wrong, then you truly shall no longer be ruled as if you were a servant of the devil.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “So, if I free you from your sins, you are really free, because I am the Child of God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Therefore if the Son of God is the one who frees you, you are really free for sure.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Therefore if you are set free by the Son of God, it is really true that you can no longer be ruled over by your former slave owner.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Therefore if I who am God’s Child set-you -free from sin, you will indeed by freed.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “As long as I, who am the one meant by this Son, will be the one to release you from your slavery, it’s certain you will be truly released.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Therefore if the Son of God saves you, you truly are saved.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 1:3)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:3:

  • Uma: “That Good News tells who the Child of God is, our Lord Yesus Kristus. According to his birth as mankind, Yesus is the descendant of King Daud of old. But that Yesus is also the Child of God, for he is holy the same as God. That is clear because God caused him to live again, and with that amazing sign he made-clear that he indeed is the Child of God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This good news is about God’s Child/Son, Isa Almasi, our (incl.) Leader. He was born in the world a descendant of King Da’ud when he was a human being.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “This is the news about our Lord Jesus Christ, son of God. And as for this Jesus, he became a human for he was born as a descendant of the long ago King David.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “What this good news talks-about, it is his Child Jesu Cristo who is our Lord. As concerning his personhood, he was a descendant of King David.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “This good news tells about our Lord Jesus Christ, the son of God. It tells that he became a person, and tells that he is the descendant of the ruler David.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Isthmus Zapotec: “This gospel teaches us of His son who came from among the children (family) of David at the time when he came to be a person of this world, and He is Jesus Christ our Lord.”
  • Central Tarahumara: “And this very Good Word of God speaks advising us about the Son of God, who is our Lord Jesus Christ. And here in the world Jesus Christ was born as a baby boy. And he was born as one of David’s grandsons like.” (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)
  • Hausa: “This gospel is about his Son Jesus Christ our Lord it is. By human he is from the tribe of David,” (Source: Hausa Common Language Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 1:4)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:4:

  • Uma: “That Good News tells who the Child of God is, our Lord Yesus Kristus. According to his birth as mankind, Yesus is the descendant of King Daud of old. But that Yesus is also the Child of God, for he is holy the same as God. That is clear because God caused him to live again, and with that amazing sign he made-clear that he indeed is the Child of God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But he is really God. By God’s power it is clear that he truly is the Child of God because he was made alive again from his death.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “As for Jesus Christ our Lord, he is the holy God because he is also the son of God, because this was shown to us by means of the great power of God which was used to raise him from the dead.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Concerning also his holy godhood, God showed that he was his Child when he made-him-alive again by-means-of his power.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “But concerning the holy soul of Jesus Christ, it clearly is apparent that he is not just a person, it is strongly apparent that he is the Son of God, because he resurrected after he died.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Central Tarahumara: “And the Very Good Spirit, God’s Spirit, raised up Jesus Christ when he was already dead. And all of the people were thus truly shown that Jesus Christ is the only Son of God.”
  • Central Mazahua : “The Spirit which comes from God caused him to arise when he had died. Thus it was made known powerfully that he is the Son of God. This is Jesus Christ who is our Lord.”
  • Chicahuaxtla Triqui: “But Christ is Son of God according to his spirit because his spirit is entirely good. And God himself has shown that Jesus is his very Son. And very powerfully did God with him when he rose from among the dead by God’s agency. And Jesus Christ has become the Lord who has authority over us.” (Source for this and two above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (Romans 1:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:5:

  • Uma: “By the lips of that Yesus, God gave me a big blessing, appointing [lifting] me as his apostle [messenger], so that I take the Good News to people all over the world, teaching them to believe and submit to the Lord Yesus, so that the name of Yesus is made-big.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Because of Isa Almasi I was given work/doing by God. I was commissioned by him to proclaim the good news so that there would be some from all nations/peoples/tribes that I would carry/influence to be people trusting and following/obeying Isa Almasi so that he can-be-praised/is-praised.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Through Christ sending me, I was given wisdom and God made me an apostle, which is to say, send one, in order that Jesus might be honored. The reason that he did this was so that I might teach the people who aren’t Jews in the towns everywhere, so that they might obey and believe Jesus Christ.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because of him, God showed-me -kindness/grace and made me an apostle so that I would persuade people in all countries/towns to believe and obey Cristo so that he would be praised/honored.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Jesus Christ did me the favor of giving me the work of being his representative. He wants that in whatever land I tell the good news to the people and that they will believe, they will do what it says. By this then the people will praise Jesus Christ.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Hopi: “Because of Him, God through his pity sent me to preach in order that I might speak the good message to all people in order to persuade some. And then they will walk according to our beliefs. In doing this I make Jesus Christ very big.”
  • Central Mazahua: “Jesus Christ looked on me well. He sent me to do his work, in order that the people in the world will believe-obey, listen-obey him.”
  • Central Tarahumara: “And Jesus Christ very lovingly sent us to preach in his name, so that the people who live in all the world, believing well, should reverence Jesus Christ himself.” (Source for this and two above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)