apostle, apostles

The Greek term that is translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:


The Greek that is translated in English as “fellowship” or “communion” is translated in Huba as daɓǝkǝr: “joining heads.” (Source: David Frank in this blog post)

Other translations include:

  • Lalana Chinantec: “they were very happy since they were with their brothers”
  • Chichimeca-Jonaz “always well they talk together”
  • Chuj: “were at peace with each other”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “they accompanied the other believers”
  • Ayutla Mixtec: “they were united together”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “their hearts were happy because they all thought alike” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Uma: “harmony” (source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “become one” (source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “have an intimate relationship” (source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “companionship” (source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “be friends” (source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “head-hearts are one”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “be of the same mind” (source for this and two above: John Beekman in Notes on Translation 1964, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (Acts 2:42)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 2:42:

  • Uma: “Those new followers of Yesus continually requested-teaching of the apostles of Lord Yesus, and they kept gathering together. They ate together, breaking/chunking bread to remember the Lord Yesus death, and they also prayed together.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “They were-very-happy/liked to be taught by the persons/people commissioned by Isa and they were all of one liver. They joined the ones trusting in eating bread to remember the death of Isa, and they also joined in praying to God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And everyday they listened to that which the apostles taught them. They had fellowship with all of the believers, and they made a memorial of the death of Jesus by means of eating bread, and they were always praying.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “They persevered in studying and following what the apostles were teaching. They also singlemindedly/persistently joined-in-companioning and praying-with their fellows who believed, and eating-together the bread that was their means-of-being-reminded of Jesus’ death.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And all of them, they really persevered in what the apostles were teaching and they often/always gathered-together. They also shared-with-one-another food including doing Communion and were also often/always praying.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Morelos Nahuatl: “They continued studying with the apostles. They had joy in living together as brethren. Together they ate and prayed.”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “All of them would gather day by day and study the messages that the apostles would teach. They lived peacefully together, used to pray to God and break bread as our Lord Jesus established.” (Source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)