together, with one accord

The Greek that is translated as “together” or “with one accord” in English is translated in Yamba and Bulu as “(with) one heart.” (Source: W. Reyburn in The Bible Translator 1959, p. 1ff.)

In Enlhet it is translated as “their innermosts did not go past each other.” “Innermost” or valhoc is a term that is frequently used in Enlhet to describe a large variety of emotions (for other examples see here). (Source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 24ff.)

Following are some other translations:

anoint (chrió)

The Greek chrió that is translated as “anoint” in English is translated in Chol as “choose.”

Wilbur Aulie (in The Bible Translator 1957, p. 109ff.) explains: “Another illustration of translating a figure in a non-figurative manner is the treatment of chrió ‘anoint’. In Luke 4:18, Acts 4:27 and 10:38, and in 2 Corinthians 1:21 it is metaphorical of consecration to office by God. We translated the metaphor ‘choose’.”

Other translations include “place as Savior” in Highland Popoluca, “appoint to rule” in Coatlán Mixe, “give work to do” in Tepeuxila Cuicatec, or “give office to be our Savior” in Chuj (source of this and four above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.).

apostle, apostles

(To view the different translations of this term in a simplified graphical form on a new page, click or tap here.)

The Greek term that is translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:

devout

The Greek that is often translated in English as “devout” is translated in Lalana Chinantec as “who revered God,” in Chichimeca-Jonaz as “who obey and worship God,” in Eastern Highland Otomi as “that remembered God,” in San Mateo del Mar Huave as “worshipers of God,” in Tzotzil as “they were zealously doing God’s word they thought,” in Coatlan Mixe as “they comply with all Jewish customs” (esp. Acts 2:5) and in Mezquital Otomi as “very much believed what they had been taught about God.” (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

gnash teeth, grind teeth

The Greek that is translated into English as “gnashed their teeth” or “ground their teeth” is translated in Pwo Karen as “their eyes were green/blue with anger” (source: David Clark), in Yao as “they had itchy teeth” (“meaning they very anxious to destroy him”) (source: Nida / Reyburn, p. 56), in Estado de México Otomi as “gnashed their teeth at him to show anger” (to specify their emotion) (source: John Beekman in Notes on Translation, March 1965, p. 2ff.), in Coatlán Mixe as “ground their teeth in anger like wild hogs,” and in Rincón Zapotec as “showed their teeth (like a dog) because of their anger” (source for this and before: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.).

In Coatlán Mixe it is translated as “ground their teeth (in anger) like wild hogs and in Rincón Zapotec as “showed their teeth (like a dog).” (Source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

See also gnashing of teeth.

amazed and astonished

The Greek that is translated as “amazed and astonished” or similar in English is translated as “remained speechless and marveled” in Morelos Nahuatl, “their thinking went round and round” in Coatlán Mixe, “They lost their abdomens. They stared very much” in Chuj, and “it startled them and they were thinking it over inside their hearts” in Chichimeca-Jonaz. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

See also amazed / astonished / marvel.

beautiful before God

The Greek that is translated as “beautiful before God” in English is translated in the following ways:

repent, repentance

(To view the different translations of this term in a simplified graphical form on a new page, click or tap here.)

The Greek and Hebrew that is often translated as “repent” or “repentance” is (back-) translated in various ways: (click or tap here to see the rest of this insight)

  • Western Kanjobal: “to think in the soul”
  • Kekchí: “pain in the heart”
  • Northwestern Dinka: “to turn the heart”
  • Pedi: “to become untwisted”
  • Baoulé: “it hurts to make you quit it” (source for this and above: Nida 1952, p. 137)
  • Balinese: “putting on a new mind”
  • Chicahuaxtla Triqui: “be sorry on account of [your] sins”
  • Uab Meto: “to turn the heart upside down” (source for this and the two above: Bratcher / Nida)
  • Central Mazahua / Chichimeca-Jonaz: “turning back the heart” (source: Nida 1952, p. 40)
  • Suki: biaekwatrudap gjaeraesae: “turn with sorrow” (Source L. and E. Twyman in The Bible Translator 1953, p. 91ff.)
  • Yamba and Bulu: “turn over the heart (source: W. Reyburn in The Bible Translator 1959, p. 1ff.)
  • Nyanja: kutembenuka mtima (“to be turned around in one’s heart”) (source: Ernst Wendland in The Bible Translator 2002, p. 319ff.)
  • Caribbean Javanese: mertobat (“tired of old life”)
  • Saramaccan: bia libi ko a Massa Gadu (“turn your life to the Lord God”)
  • Sranan Tongo: drai yu libi (“turn your life”) or kenki libi (“change life”)
  • Eastern Maroon Creole: dai yu libi (“turn your life”) (source for this and 3 above: Jabini 2015)
  • Eggon: “bow in the dust” (source: Kilgour, p. 80)
  • Embu: “changing heart” (“2 Cor. 7:10 says ‘For godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation and brings no regret, but worldly grief produces death.’ In ordinary speech the terms ‘repent’ and ‘regret’ are used interchangeably in Embu, so that this verse comes out as: ‘godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation and brings no repentance,’ which is contradictory. The problem was solved by using ‘changing heart’ in the first, and ‘sadness’ in the second.”) (source: Jan Sterk)
  • Anuak: “liver falls down”
  • Kafa: “return from way of sin to God” (source for this and the one above: Loren Bliese)
  • Latvian: atgriezties (verb) / atgriešanās (noun) (“turn around / return” — see turn around / convert) (source: Katie Roth)
  • Obolo: igwugwu ikom: “turning back (from evil)” (source: Enene Enene)
  • Mairasi: make an end (of wrongdoing) (source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Luchazi: ku aluluka mutima: “to turn in heart” (source: E. Pearson in The Bible Translator 1954, p. 160ff.)
  • Chokwe: kulinkonyeka: “to fold back over” or “to go back on oneself” (source D.B. Long in The Bible Translator 1953, p. 135ff.).
  • Muna: dofetompa’ao dhosa bhe dodoli ne Lahata’ala: “to radically-end sin and to turn to God” (source: René van den Berg)
  • Bacama: por-njiya: “fetch sand” (“Before the coming of Christianity 100 years ago, when the elders went to pray to the gods, they would take sand and throw it over each shoulder and down their backs while confessing their sins. Covering themselves with sand was a ritual to show that they were sorry for what they had done wrong, sort of like covering oneself with sackcloth and ashes. Now idol worship for the most part is abandoned in Bacama culture, but the Christian church has retained the phrase por-njiya to mean ‘repent, doing something to show sorrow for one’s sins’” — source: David Frank in this blog post.)
  • “In Tzotzil two reflexive verbs to communicate the biblical concept of repentance are used. Xca’i jba means to know or to reflect inwardly on one’s self. This self inquiry or self examination is similar to the attitude of the prodigal son where Luke 15:17 records that ‘he came to his senses.’ Broke, starving, and slopping hogs, the prodigal admitted to himself that he was in the wrong place. The second reflexive verb ‘jsutes jba’ means turning away from what one is and turning to something else. In a sense, it is deciding against one’s self and toward someone else. It is similar to the attitude of the prodigal son when he said, ‘I will get up and go to my father’ (v. 18).” (source: Aeilts, p. 118)
  • Enlhet “exchange innermosts.” “Innermost” or valhoc is a term that is frequently used in Enlhet to describe a large variety of emotions or states of mind (for other examples see here). (Source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 24ff.)
  • San Blas Kuna: “sorry for wrong done in the heart” (source: Claudio and Marvel Iglesias in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 85ff.)
  • Desano: “change your bad deeds for good ones
  • Isthmus Mixe: “put your hearts and minds on the good road”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “change your thinking about evil and walk in the way of God”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “just remember that you have done wicked, in order that you might do good”
  • Coatlán Mixe: “heart-return to God” (source for this and four above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

See also: convert / conversion / turn back and see Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling.”

scribe

The Greek that is translated as “scribe” in English “were more than mere writers of the law. They were the trained interpreters of the law and expounders of tradition.”

Here are a number of its (back-) translations:

complete verse (Acts 2:23)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 2:23:

  • Uma: “That Yesus was offered to you, and you killed him, you offered him to evil people in order that they crucify him. But-in-fact what happened exactly followed the command/plan that God made-certain from-the-first, for God knew from-the-first what must happen.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “God knew beforehand and (it was) from his will that this Isa was delivered into your hands/holding and he had planned this for Isa. And you told/commanded sinful men/people to nail Isa on the post and to kill (him).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And this Jesus, a person delivered him to you. God already knew about this beforehand because this is what he had foreordained for Jesus. You caused him to be killed by people who do not worship God, and they nailed him to a cross.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “This Jesus, God originally decided that he be-handed-over to you, because that was his plan long-ago and he knew it would be fulfilled. And you had-him-killed, handing-him-over to bad people so they would nail him to the cross.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But, well, you handed him over to people who don’t acknowledge God, for you caused him to be killed on a cross. But it’s true, this was only the fulfilling of what God determined.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “A long time ago God knew what you did to his Son, and God allowed you to put him on the cross by the hands of the wicked and kill him.”
  • Chuj: “But that Jesus he was given into your hands; because thus it was God’s will it happened. God, he knew it already before, what would come upon Jesus. You, you borrowed the hands of bad people so that you grab Jesus. You put him on a cross. He died because of you.”
  • Isthmus Mixe: “God had appointed that Jesus be handed over to evil people. God had known that Jesus would be murdered. You made up your minds that evil people should nail Jesus to a cross and kill him.”
  • Morelos Nahuatl: “This Jesus God delivered to you because thus God determined before and he knew he was going to do it that way. In the hands of bad men you crucified Jesus and so you killed him.”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “When he came into your hands, as God established even from former times, you took him prisoner and turned him over into the hands of sinful men. They crucified him and they killed him because that was what you wanted.
  • Coatlán Mixe: “Judas Iscariot delivered this Jesus to you in just the manner which God had planned beforehand. And you grabbed him and killed him when you delivered him to bad people and let them kill him on the cross.
  • Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac: “Jesus was delivered up to men. You had lawless men crucify him. All this was according to God’s plan and foreknowledge.” (source for this and six above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

complete verse (Acts 3:16)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 3:16:

  • Uma: “[It is] power from the name of that Yesus that made strong the feet of that lame person there. So, this person you see and know, became well because of his faith in Yesus. From faith in Yesus, that why he has become healed, as you can see.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Na, it is the power of Isa hep that has given strength to this man who was crippled,’ Petros said. ‘You see him and you recognize him. The reason he is healed is because we (excl.) trust in Isa. Yes, it is our (excl.) trust in Isa hep that has healed this man in the sight/presence of you all.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And the thing which cured this person who could not walk was the power of the name of Jesus. This person whom you all know whom you see right now, because of our faith in Jesus, this person was healed before you because we (excl.) trust the power of the name of Jesus.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The power of Jesus’ name and our (excl.) trust in him is what-made-this man -strong whom you see and know. Jesus also is the-one-who-strengthened his mind/thoughts to trust in him, therefore his lameness was absolutely removed as you all are seeing.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well now, as for this lame person you can see whom you know indeed, he was made well through the supernatural-power of Jesus. Yes indeed, through the strength of our (excl.) believing/obeying and trusting in that Jesus, he made this person completely well here in your presence.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Morelos Nahuatl: “This man who was lame you see and know. God healed him because we believe in the name of Jesus. Because we believe in Jesus, he healed this man perfectly before you.”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “With the authority of Jesus this man whom you know has been healed, because he believed in him. He believed in Jesus and that’s why he has been healed as you see.”
  • Coatlán Mixe: “This Jesus is the one in whose authority we spoke, believing in him. He is the one who has healed (made strong) this man whom you know. Because he believed in Jesus, that is what has healed him very well as you all are able to see.” (Source for this and two above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

complete verse (Acts 3:18)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 3:18:

  • Uma: “But even so, from what you did, that which God said long ago with the lips of all the prophets came true, that said: the Redeemer King must undergo suffering.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But that was how God fulfilled his word/message which was made-known/spoken by the prophets of old. They made-known/spoke that Almasi, should/must really experience persecution.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Long ago, God by means of the prophecies of those whom he inspired, caused to understand that the king whom he chose would be tortured by people. And he caused this to come to pass by means of what you did.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But the death of Jesus, that was the fulfillment of what God caused-to-be-written long-ago, because all the prophets, they said that the Messiah that he would send had to suffer and die.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But through this which you did, God fulfilled what he put in the minds of the prophets of the past which he was causing people to know, saying that the Cristo who is the Savior King who was promised would indeed be caused to suffer by people.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Coatlán Mixe. “Like this God completed the thinking like it had been said at first by his word-speakers concerning the Christ whom he appointed to be your Lord. He said that it was necessary that this one should catastrophe-encounter.”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “God caused to happen what was said long ago, that which the prophets said about the suffering Christ would see, the chosen one of God.” (Source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)