cloth

The Greek that is translated as “cloth” or “swaddling clothes” in English is translated in Nyongar as bwoka or “Kangaroo skin.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)

heaven and earth

The Greek that is translated as “(Lord of) heaven and earth” in English is translated as “(Lord of) God’s Country and our Country” in Nyongar (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

crucify

(To view the different translations of this term in a simplified graphical form on a new page, click or tap here.)

The Greek that is translated into English as “crucify” is translated into Naro with xgàu which literally means “to stretch” as is done with a skin after slaughtering in order to dry it. The word is also widely accepted in the churches (source: Gerrit van Steenbergen). Similarly, Balinese and Toraja-Sa’dan also translate as “stretch him” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Rendille as lakakaaha — “stretched and nailed down” (source: Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 33).

In Ghari it becomes “hammer to the cross” (source: David Clark), in Loma “fasten him to a spread-back-stick” (source: Bratcher / Nida), in Sundanese “hang him on a crossbeam” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel), in Aguaruna “fasten him to the tree,” in Navajo “nail him to the cross”, in Yatzachi Zapotec “fasten him to the cross” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), in Nyongar “kill on a tree” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang), and in Apali the different aspects of the crucifixion have to be spelled out: “nail to a tree piece put cross-wise, lift up to stand upright (for the crucified person) to die (and in some contexts: to die and rise again)” (source: Martha Wade).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip showing how crucifixion was done in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also cross and hang on a tree.

lame

The Greek that is translated as “lame” in English is translated in various ways:

wine

The Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek that are translated as “wine” in English is translated into Pass Valley Yali as “grape juice pressed long ago (= fermented)” or “strong water” (source: Daud Soesilo). In Guhu-Samane it is also translated as “strong water” (source: Ernest L. Richert in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.) or in Nyongar as “liquor” (verbatim: “strong water”) (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about wine in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also proceeds from the vine / anything that comes from the grapevine.

bed

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “bed” in English is translated in Nyongar as maya-ngwoorndiny or “bark sleeping” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

See also mat, bed.

John the Baptist

A further question of cultural assumptions arose in Tuvan in the case of “John the Baptist.” The instinctive way to translate this name denotatively would be “John the Dipper,” but this would carry the highly misleading connotation that he drowned people. It was therefore decided that his label should focus on the other major aspect of his work, that is, proclaiming that the Messiah would soon succeed him. (Compare his title in Russian Orthodox translation “Иоанн Предтеча” — “John the Forerunner.”) So he became “John the Announcer,” which fortunately did not seem to give rise to any confusion with radio newsreaders! (Source: David Clark in The Bible Translator 2015, p. 117ff.)

In Nyongar it is translated as John-Kakaloorniny or “John Washing” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

See also John.

spit upon

The Greek that is translated in English as “spit” is translated in Chipaya as “eject saliva” (source: Ronald D. Olson in Notes on Translation January, 1968, p. 15ff.).

In Nyongar it is narridja-kwarda or “spittle-throw” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

See also spit and touched.

intelligent

The Greek that is often translated as “intelligent” in English is translated as “of much mind” in Isthmus Mixe, “a great deal of wisdom” in San Mateo del Mar Huave, “really can think” in Lalana Chinantec (source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.), or “ear much” in Nyongar (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

staff, walking stick

The Greek that is translated as “staff” or “walking stick” in English is translated in Nyongar as boorn-yaniny or “wood-walking” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

scorpion

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “scorpion” in English is translated in North Tanna as “centipedes” (Luke 10:19) or “millipede” (Luke 11:12) (source: Ross McKerras).

The literal translation in Nyongar is nirnt-daalang or “tail-tongue” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang) and in Uma it is translated as “stinging-caterpillar” (Source: Uma Back Translation).