ruler

The Greek that is often translated as “ruler” in English has the option of various terms in Luang with different shades of meaning.

For Acts 16:22 and 17:6, maktorna lodna-hairi (“one who holds the rod and the flag”). “The focus of this term is on national or government authorities.”

For Mark 10:42, makkukma-kto’ma (“the one who pinches you”). “An unjust ruler.”

For Acts 4:26, maktorna-makrautu (“one who holds — one who scratches”). “The focus of this term is on the manpower a ruler controls, such as a large army.”

For Acts 5:31, maktoranreria krita o’tani-hairi wuwannu (“one who holds the octopus’s head – the flag’s top”). “This term refers to a ruler of the highest level. This is what God has raised up Jesus to be. The word ‘octopus’ in this natural doublet contains the idea of supreme control. An octopus has so many arms it can be in control of everything at the same time.”

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.

preach

The Greek terms that are translated into English as “preach” or “proclaim” are regularly rendered into Aari as “speaking the word of salvation.” (Source: Loren Bliese)

Other languages (back-) translate it in the following manner:

  • Mandarin Chinese: chuándào/傳道 or “hand down the Way [or: the Logos]”)
  • Kekchí: “declare the word”
  • Kpelle: “speak God’s word”
  • Tzeltal: “he explains, they hear” (“the goal of all preachers”)
  • Copainalá Zoque: “a preacher is ‘one who speaks-scatters'” (a figure based on the scattering of seed in the process of sowing) (source for this and above: Bratcher / Nida)
  • Shilluk: “declare the word of of God” (source: Nida 1964, p. 237)

In Luang it is translated with different shades of meaning:

  • For Acts 9:20, 10:42: nakotnohora: “talk about” (“The generic term for preaching.”)
  • For Acts 8:4, 8:5, 8:25: rodkiota-ralde’etnohora — “bring words, give news about.” (“This term is used when the preacher is moving from place to place to preach.”)

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.

amazed (Luang)

The Greek that is often translated as “amazed” in English has the option of various terms in Luang with different shades of meaning.

For Acts 3:10 and 9:7, ema rtaplelleltarga (“as if they could not speak”) was chosen. This is used for “surprise causing introspection about the meaning of what has occurred and what effect it will have.”

For Mark 16:5, hnedu (“surprised”) was chosen. This is used for “surprise causing a physical jerk of the body.”

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.

appoint

The Greek that is often translated as “appoint” in English has the option of various terms in Luang with different shades of meaning.

For Mark 13:20, naliri-natoha (“choose-move”) was chosen. This is used if “choosing something to set aside for future use, with the additional idea that there are a large number of objects being chosen as opposed to only one and connoting separating/sifting of the good from the bad.”

For Acts 4:12, ntutmata-nkewra’a (“point eyes-lift chin”) was chosen. This is used when “appointing one special person to do a very special job that no one else can do. The focus is also on a special person doing the choosing. This is often the term used in verses that speak of what Jesus Christ was appointed to do and of how Paul was an apostle chosen by God.”

For Acts 14:23 and Titus 1:5, rana (“lift up”) was chosen. This is used for “people choosing people to be over them. This is often the term used for the appointing of elders of the church.”

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.

See also appoint (Japanese honorifics).

mercy

The Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Latin terms that are typically translated as “mercy” (or “compassion” or “kindness”) in English are translated in various ways. Bratcher / Nida classify them in (1) those based on the quality of heart, or other psychological center, (2) those which introduce the concept of weeping or extreme sorrow, (3) those which involve willingness to look upon and recognize the condition of others, or (4) those which involve a variety of intense feelings.

While the English mercy originates from the Latin merces, originally “price paid,” Romance languages (Italian, Spanish, Corsican, Catalan) and other Germanic languages (German, Swedish, DanishBarmherzigkeit, barmhärtighet and barmhjertighed, respectively) tend to follow the Latin misericordia, lit. “misery-heart.”

Here are some other (back-) translations:

See also steadfast love.

become one flesh

The Greek and Hebrew that is often translated into English as “(the two) shall become one flesh” is translated as “become just one” in Copainalá Zoque and San Mateo del Mar Huave or with existing idiomatic equivalents such as “become one blood” in Mitla Zapotec, “become the complement of each other’s spirit” in Tzeltal (source for this and above Bratcher / Nida), “become one body” in Uab Meto (source: P. Middelkoop in The Bible Translator 1952, p. 208ff. ), or “tie with wife as one, so that they tie one insides” in Luang (source: Kathy and Mark Taber in Kroneman [2004], p. 539).

In Tataltepec Chatino it is translated as “the two shall accompany each other so that they no longer seem two but are like one person,” in Choapan Zapotec as “when the man and woman live together in front of God, it is as if just one person,” and in Mezquital Otomi as “they aren’t two, it is as though they are one.” (Source: B. Moore / G. Turner in Notes on Translation 1967, p. 1ff.)

See also I am your bone and flesh.

evil

The Greek that is often translated as “evil” in English has the option of various terms in Luang with different shades of meaning.

For Acts 24:9 and Gen. 6:11, yata-hala (“bad-wrong”). “This term refers to evil behavior.”

For Acts 27:12, yota-yata (“bad-bad”). “This term refers to the evil results of behavior or to objects of poor quality. (In Acts 27:12 it refers to a bad harbor).”

For Acts 12:11 and 13:50, yatyatni (“its badness”). “This term is often used when evil comes on a person from an outside force.”

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.

judge

The Greek that is often translated as “judge” in English has the option of various terms in Luang with different shades of meaning.

For Acts 4:21 and 10:42, maktorna wathudi lokarni-taitiaili lahanu (“the one who holds the scales”). “This term is used when judgment of sin or wrong is in focus.”

For Acts 13:20, maktorna deulu-tatra (“the one who holds the law”). “This term is used for the judges in the Old Testament for whom judging wrong was only a part of their job.”

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.

See also judge.