apostle, apostles

The Greek term that is translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:


The Greek that is often translated as “wonder” into English is different from the term that is translated as “miracle” (see miracle) since it “usually involves some unusual phenomena in nature which are a portent of dire woe or extraordinary blessing.” In Huichol these are “awe-inspiring things,” in Yucateco they are “things which show what is coming,” and in Eastern Highland Otomi the expression must be cast into the form of a verb phrase “they will amaze the people.”


The Greek that is typically translated in English as “sign” is translated in Huehuetla Tepehua as “thing to be marveled at” (source: Larson 1889, p. 279) and in Mairasi as “big work” (source: Enggavoter 2004).

complete verse (Acts 2:43)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 2:43:

  • Uma: “Many powerful things and amazing signs were done/made by the apostles of Lord Yesus. That’s why the crowds were very much afraid.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Many works of power and works causing-wonder were done by the persons/men commissioned by Isa, that’s why the people really feared God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “There were many miracles and signs which were done by means of the apostles. That’s why the people were filled with the fear of God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “There were many amazing miracles that God was having-the apostles -do, and the many-people were greatly amazed.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Many were the signs which were amazing things which the apostles were being able to do, that’s why everybody respected/honored God with fear.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)