sinner

The Greek that is translated as “sinner” in English is translated as “people with bad hearts” (“it is not enough to call them ‘people who do bad things,’ for though actions do reflect the heart, yet it is the hearts with which God is primarily concerned — see Matt. 15:19”) in Western Kanjobal, “people who are doing wrong things in their hearts” in San Blas Kuna (source: Nida 1952, p. 148), “people with bad stomachs” in Q’anjob’al (source: Newberry and Kittie Cox in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 91ff.), or “people with dirty hearts” (Mairasi) (Enggavoter 2004).

In Central Mazahua and Teutila Cuicatec it is translated as “(person who) owes sin.” (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (1 Timothy 1:9)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 1:9:

  • Uma: “In order that our use [of it] be true, we must remember the purpose of the Law of Musa. The Law of Musa was not made for people whose behavior is upright. Its purpose is to forbid/stop people who transgress laws and people who are rebellious, who don’t submit to God, who sin, who don’t regard/pay-attention-to religion, who just follow the happiness of the world, who murder their mother or their father, and other murderers.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Because we/one (dual) ought to understand that the law is not hep given to straight/righteous people but to/for people who transgress/break the law and (to) the people who do not follow/obey instruction/teaching, people not afraid of God and sinners. It is also given to people who do not honor/respect God and just mock/make-fun-of God, to people who kill their mother-father or their fellow humans. The law of God is given for these ones.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “However this was not commanded in order to forbid righteous people from acting, rather, it was commanded in order to forbid from acting transgressors, those who are not faithful, those who will not believe in God, criminals, wicked people, and those who do not respect God, those who kill their mother and father, murderers,” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “We ought to be-able-to-understand that it is not the righteous person who is the reason for the making of the law but rather the bad person like these: the one who habitually-breaks laws and doesn’t submit-to (lit. cause-himself-to-be-ruled-by) those who have authority, the one who refuses to worship God and the sinner, the not religious (loan relihioso) and the one who belittles/mocks that which concerns God, the one who kills his father or his mother and the one who kills his fellow person,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Let us consider that God gave his laws, not because of those who do good, but rather because of those who do evil. People like these, (they are those who) don’t acknowledge the law, the disobedient, those who don’t acknowledge God and his will is far from their mind/inner-being, and who belittle things which are far-from-ordinary in his sight. The laws are also necessary because of the ones who kill their parents and their fellowman,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “For the people who do good, there isn’t any law that can judge them. The law was written in order to judge the lawbreakers. It judges the disobedient. It judges the evil people, those who sin. It judges the people who do not honor God and do not believe. It judges the people who kill fathers, mothers, and fellow men.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

righteous, righteousness

(To view the different translations of this term in a simplified graphical form on a new page, click or tap here.)

The Greek and Hebrew terms that are translated in English mostly as “righteous” as an adjective or personified noun or “righteousness” (also as “justice”) are most commonly expressed with concept of “straightness,” though this may be expressed in a number of ways. (Click or tap here to see the details)

Following is a list of (back-) translations of various languages:

  • Bambara, Southern Bobo Madaré, Chokwe (ululi), Amganad Ifugao, Chol, Eastern Maninkakan, Toraja-Sa’dan, Pamona, Batak Toba, Bilua, Tiv: “to be straight”
  • Laka: “to follow the straight way” or “to straight-straight” (a reduplicated form for emphasis)
  • Highland Puebla Nahuatl, Kekchí, Muna: “to have a straight heart”
  • Kipsigis: “to do the truth”
  • Mezquital Otomi: “to do according to the truth”
  • Huautla Mazatec: “to have truth”
  • Yine: “to fulfill what one should do”
  • Indonesian: “people who are true”
  • Navajo: “to do just so”
  • Anuak: “to do as it should be”
  • Mossi: “to have a white stomach” (See also Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling.”)
  • Nuer: “way of right” (“there is a complex concept of “right” vs. ‘left’ in Nuer where ‘right’ indicates that which is masculine, strong, good, and moral, and ‘left’ denotes what is feminine, weak, and sinful (a strictly masculine viewpoint!) The ‘way of right’ is therefore righteousness, but of course women may also attain this way, for the opposition is more classificatory than descriptive.”) (This and all above from Bratcher / Nida except for Bilua: Carl Gross; Tiv: Rob Koops; Muna: René van den Berg)
  • Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac: “live well”
  • Mezquital Otomi: “goodness before the face of God” (source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl: “the result of heart-straightening” (source: Nida 1947, p. 224)
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “entirely good” (when referred to God), “do good” or “not be a debtor as God sees one” (when referred to people)
  • Carib: “level”
  • Tzotzil: “straight-hearted”
  • Ojitlán Chinantec: “right and straight”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “walk straight” (source for this and four previous: John Beekman in Notes on Translation November 1964, p. 1-22)
  • Aari: The Pauline word for “righteous” is generally rendered by “makes them without sin” in the Aari, sometimes “before God” is added for clarity. (Source: Loren Bliese)
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “having sin taken away” (Source: Nida 1952, p. 144)
  • Venda: “nothing wrong, OK” (Source: J.A. van Roy in The Bible Translator 1972, p. 418ff.)
  • Guhu-Samane: pobi or “right” (also: “right (side),” “(legal) right,” “straightness,” “correction,” “south,” “possession,” “pertinence,” “kingdom,” “fame,” “information,” or “speech” — “According to [Guhu-Samane] thinking there is a common core of meaning among all these glosses. Even from an English point of view the first five can be seen to be closely related, simply because of their similarity in English. However, from that point the nuances of meaning are not so apparent. They relate in some such a fashion as this: As one faces the morning sun, south lies to the right hand (as north lies to the left); then at one’s right hand are his possessions and whatever pertains to him; thus, a rich man’s many possessions and scope of power and influence is his kingdom; so, the rich and other important people encounter fame; and all of this spreads as information and forms most of the framework of the people’s speech.”) (Source: Ernest Richert in Notes on Translation 1964, p. 11ff.)

See also respectable, righteous and righteous (person)

law

The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)
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