Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 10:5:
Uma: “There are words of the prophet Musa long ago that say: whoever wants to become straight from their following the Lord’s Law, they will get good life as long as they follow all of the Lord’s Law.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
Yakan: “This has been written by Musa about a person who follows/obeys the law so that he is considered straight by God. He says, ‘Whoever really can follow/obey all the commands in the law, he will live in heaven without end.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
Western Bukidnon Manobo: “But there’s a written word of Moses about people being considered righteous by means of obeying the Law. He says, ‘The person who the thing that he trust is his obedience to the Law, he will be given life without end if there isn’t even one mistake there in his carefully fulfilling everything that is commanded by the Law,’ said Moses.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
Kankanaey: “This is what Moses wrote concerning people’s being counted as righteous because of their following the law. He said, ‘The person who obeys absolutely-all the commands of the law, he will have life that has no end.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
Tenango Otomi: “But concerning those people who say that God clears their sins when they will do all which the law says, it is Moses who wrote the word which says: ‘It is the person who completes all the words which the law says who will save his soul’ it says.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
(To view the different translations of this term in a simplified graphical form on a new page, click or tap here.)
The Greek and Hebrew terms that are translated mostly as “righteous” as an adjective or personified noun or “righteousness” are most commonly expressed with concept of “straightness,” though this may be expressed in a number of ways. (Click or tap here to see the details)
Following is a list of (back-) translations of various languages:
Mossi: “to have a white stomach” (See also Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling.”)
Nuer: “way of right” (“there is a complex concept of “right” vs. ‘left’ in Nuer where ‘right’ indicates that which is masculine, strong, good, and moral, and ‘left’ denotes what is feminine, weak, and sinful (a strictly masculine viewpoint!) The ‘way of right’ is therefore righteousness, but of course women may also attain this way, for the opposition is more classificatory than descriptive.”) (This and all above from Bratcher / Nida except for Bilua: Carl Gross; Tiv: Rob Koops; Muna: René van den Berg)
Guhu-Samane: pobi or “right” (also: “right (side),” “(legal) right,” “straightness,” “correction,” “south,” “possession,” “pertinence,” “kingdom,” “fame,” “information,” or “speech” — “According to [Guhu-Samane] thinking there is a common core of meaning among all these glosses. Even from an English point of view the first five can be seen to be closely related, simply because of their similarity in English. However, from that point the nuances of meaning are not so apparent. They relate in some such a fashion as this: As one faces the morning sun, south lies to the right hand (as north lies to the left); then at one’s right hand are his possessions and whatever pertains to him; thus, a rich man’s many possessions and scope of power and influence is his kingdom; so, the rich and other important people encounter fame; and all of this spreads as information and forms most of the framework of the people’s speech.”) (Source: Ernest Richert in Notes on Translation 1964, p. 11ff.)
The name that is transliterated as “Moses” in English is signed in Spanish Sign Language in accordance with the depiction of Moses in the famous statue by Michelangelo (see here). (Source: John Elwode in The Bible Translator 2008, p. 78ff.)
Another depiction in Spanish Sign Language (source: Carlos Moreno Sastre):
The horns that are visible in Michelangelo’s statue are based on a passage in the Latin Vulgate translation (and many Catholic Bible translations that were translated through the 1950ies with that version as the source text). Jerome, the translator, had worked from a Hebrew text without the niqquds, the diacritical marks that signify the vowels in Hebrew and had interpreted the term קרו (k-r-n) in Exodus 34:29 as קֶ֫רֶן — keren “horned,” rather than קָרַו — karan “radiance” (describing the radiance of Moses’ head as he descends from Mount Sinai).
Even at the time of his translation, Jerome likely was not the only one making that decision as this recent article alludes to.