The Greek that is translated into English as “crucify” is translated into Naro with xgàu which literally means “to stretch” as is done with a skin after slaughtering in order to dry it. The word is also widely accepted in the churches (source: Gerrit van Steenbergen). Similarly, Balinese and Toraja-Sa’dan also translate as “stretch him” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Rendille as lakakaaha — “stretched and nailed down” (source: Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 33).
In Ghari it becomes “hammer to the cross” (source: David Clark), in Loma “fasten him to a spread-back-stick” (source: Bratcher / Nida), in Sundanese “hang him on a crossbeam” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel), in Aguaruna “fasten him to the tree,” in Navajo “nail him to the cross”, in Yatzachi Zapotec “fasten him to the cross” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), in Nyongar “kill on a tree” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang), and in Apali the different aspects of the crucifixion have to be spelled out: “nail to a tree piece put cross-wise, lift up to stand upright (for the crucified person) to die (and in some contexts: to die and rise again)” (source: Martha Wade).
Click or tap here to see a short video clip showing how crucifixion was done in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)
See also cross and hang on a tree.
Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 26:2:
- Uma: “‘You know, don’t you, that in two days is big day Paskah? And I the Child of Mankind will be given into the hands of my enemies to be crucified.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
- Yakan: “‘You know that the-day-after-tomorrow is the day of the Celebration of Remembrance. On that day I, the Son of Man, will be handed over in order to be nailed to the post.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
- Western Bukidnon Manobo: “‘You know that two days from now is the feast called the feast of passing by. And then I, the Older Sibling of Mankind, I will be turned over to people so that they might nail me to a cross,’ said Jesus.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
- Kankanaey: “‘You know that the day-after-tomorrow the fiesta that is called Passed-By will arrive, and I who am Child of a Person, I will be turned-over to be nailed to the cross.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
- Tagbanwa: “‘You know that in just two days it will be the Fiesta of Passed-by. I who am the One From Heaven Born of Man/human, I will be traded so that I can be nailed to a cross.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
- Tenango Otomi: “‘You know that in two days there will be the feast of Passover. And also during this feast the Man who came from heaven will be betrayed and will be put on the cross.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)