stiff-necked, uncircumcised in heart and ears

The phrase that is translated into English as “you stiff-necked people, uncircumcised in heart and ears” is translated into Afar as “You dry stones that nothing enters, and people who have hearts that refuse God, and ears closed saying we didn’t hear God’s message.” (stiff-necked > dry stones, uncircumcised in heart > hearts that refuse God, uncircumcised ears > ears closed to hearing God’s message) (Source: Loren Bliese)

Other translations for “uncircumcised in heart and ears” include:

  • Rincón Zapotec: “it doesn’t enter your hearts or your ears. You are like those who don’t even believe”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “hard are your hearts and not a little bit open are your ears”
  • Morelos Nahuatl: “you have your heart as unbelievers, you do not want to hear God’s word”
  • Highland Popoluca: “you never wanted to do God’s will, never truly believed”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “you are just the same as those who do not believe God’s word because you do not obey”
  • Huichol: “you have not been marked with God’s sign in your hearts or in your ears (you are unruly and unsubmissive like an untamed, unbranded bronco)”
  • Ojitlán Chinantec: “you do not have the word-sign in your hearts. Your ears are clogged”
  • Copainalá Zoque: “you just don’t understand”
  • Isthmus Mixe: “your hearts and minds are not open” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Kaqchikel: “with your hearts unprepared” (Source: Nida 1964, p. 220)

beautiful before God

The Greek that is translated as “beautiful before God” in English is translated in the following ways:

council

The Greek that is translated as “council” or “Council” in English is (back-) translated in a variety of ways:

poet

The Greek that is often translated as “poet(s)” in English is translated as “wise men” in Mayo, as “writers” in Isthmus Mixe, as “intelligent men” in San Mateo del Mar Huave, and as “word-matchers” in Coatlán Mixe. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

right hand of

The Greek and Hebrew that is typically translated as “(to the) right hand of” is often translated much more descriptively in other languages. In Yakan it is translated as “at the right side, here in the greatest/most important/most honored place/seat,” in Mezquital Otomi as “the right hand, at the place of honor,” in Chuj as “exalted at the right hand,” in Chichimeca-Jonaz as “in a high place there at the right,” in Lalana Chinantec as “make great,” in Isthmus Mixe as “given great authority,” in Morelos Nahuatl as “placed big” or “heart-strengthens me,” in Isthmus Mixe as “stays with me,” (source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August, 1966, p. 86ff), and in Teutila Cuicatec as “in all authority at the right side” (source: Ronald D. Olson in Notes on Translation January, 1968, p. 15ff.).

In Lamnso’, the seat on the right-hand side signifies that the person seated there would have a higher position than the one to his left (vs. just being a seat of honor). To circumvent any misunderstanding of the biblical text, the translation here refers to the “highest seat next to God.” (Source: Karl Grebe in Holzhausen 1991, p. 52)

in the last days

The Greek that is translated as “in the last days” in English is translated as “there will be a day” in Eastern Highland Otomi, as “when the world is about to turn around” in Isthmus Mixe, as “when the time comes that the sky will soon perish” in Lalana Chinantec, as “when it will nearly be time for the world to come to an end” in Chichimeca-Jonaz, as “while the last day is near” in Tzotzil, and as “close to when the end comes” in Huichol. (Source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

Judges

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated in English translations as “Judges” (as the title of the biblical book) of “judges” (in Judg 2:16 and 2:17 and in Acts 13:20) is translated into Bukusu as “leaders” (in the case of the title of the book ‘The book of Leaders’). In light of this, there is no real need to explain that these persons were not judges of a court of law, but leaders.

In Isthmus Mixe it is also translated as “leaders,” in Morelos Nahuatl as “authorities,” and in Eastern Highland Otomi as “judges who were the rulers of the people.” (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

living oracles, living words

The Greek that is translated as “living oracles” or “living words” or similar in English is translated in the following ways:

Most High

The Greek that is translated as “(God) the Most High” or “Most High God” in English is translated in various way:

your blood be on your own heads

The Greek that is often translated as “your blood be on your own heads” or similar in English is translated as “you have the guilt if you don’t receive eternal life” in Highland Popoluca, as “you are to blame if you lose your own souls” in Coatlán Mixe, as “you will be to blame yourselves when you do not go to a good place” in Isthmus Mixe, as “you will be lost but you are at fault yourselves” in Morelos Nahuatl, and as “you are the ones who are guilty that you will be lost” in Lalana Chinantec. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

my flesh will live in hope

The Greek that is translated as “my flesh will live in hope” or similar in English is translated these ways in the following languages.

  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “when my body rests in the grave I will wait what good he will do for me”
  • Morelos Nahuatl: “I have much confidence that my body will come alive”
  • Isthmus Mixe: “even though my body should die, I know that I will come to life
  • Falam Chin: “my whole body will be filled with hope”
  • Huichol: “even though my corpse is there while I wait I believe (you will not leave my soul dead)” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

brother and fathers

The Greek that is translated as “brothers and fathers” in English is translated in Purari as “younger and older brothers.” (Source: David Clark)

In Teutila Cuicatec it is “all of you, officials of our nation and my brothers,” in Isthmus Mixe “old men and brothers (according to order of respect), in Lalana Chinantec “companions, men,” in Eastern Highland Otomi “you men, fathers,” in Chichimeca-Jonaz “you who are our relatives, and you whom I made my fathers,” in Highland Popoluca “my older uncles,” and in Rincón Zapotec “elders and brothers.” (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)