fellowship

The Greek that is translated in English as “fellowship” or “communion” is translated in Huba as daɓǝkǝr: “joining heads.” (Source: David Frank in this blog post )

Other translations include:

  • Lalana Chinantec: “they were very happy since they were with their brothers”
  • Chichimeca-Jonaz “always well they talk together”
  • Chuj: “were at peace with each other”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “they accompanied the other believers”
  • Ayutla Mixtec: “they were united together”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “their hearts were happy because they all thought alike” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Uma: “harmony” (source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “become one” (source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “have an intimate relationship” (source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “companionship” (source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “be friends” (source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “head-hearts are one”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “be of the same mind” (source for this and two above: John Beekman in Notes on Translation 1964, p. 1ff.)

God's anger, wrath of God

The Hebrew and Greek What is translated into English as “the wrath of God” (Good News Translation: “God’s anger”) has to be referred to in Bengali as judgment, punishment or whatever fits the context. In Bengali culture, anger is by definition bad and can never be predicated of God. (Source: David Clark)

In Kikuyu the whole phrase that is translated in English as “storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath” or similar is translated as “you are increasing for yourself God’s wrath.” (Source: Jan Sterk)

In Quetzaltepec Mixe it is translated with a term “that not only expresses anger, but also punishment” (source: Robert Bascom), in Western Bukidnon Manobo as “the coming punishment of God on mankind” (source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation), in Kankanaey as “God’s fearful/terrible future punishing of people” (source: Kankanaey Back Translation), in Tagbanwa as “the coming anger/hatred of God” (source: Tagbanwa Back Translation), and in Tenango Otomi as “the punishment which will come” (source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation).

See also anger.

heaven is my throne and earth my footstool

The Greek and Hebrew that is typically translated as “heaven is my throne and earth my footstool” in English is translated in the following ways:

  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “heaven is where I have my power and earth is also where I have my power”
  • Highland Popoluca: “heaven I rule, earth I rule also”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “as a chair where kings sit is heaven where I sit. As is a low stool where my feet rest, is the earth”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “if I wished, heaven could serve as my seat, and I could use the earth as a place to rest my feet if I wanted” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Kankanaey: “In heaven is where I sit to rule, and the world, that’s where-I-stretch-out-my-legs.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The heavens really are my seat in kingship. The world is just the stepping-stool of my feet,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (John 20:28)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 20:28:

  • Uma: “Tomas said: ‘My Lord! My God!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Tomas replied like this, ‘You are my Lord and you are my God.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Then Thomas answered, ‘You are my Lord. You are my God.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Tomas said, ‘You (sing.) are my Lord and my God.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “All Tomas could say was, he said, ‘My Lord/Chief, my God!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Thomas said, ‘Lord, your are my God.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 27:42)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 27:42:

  • Uma: “‘Other people he helped, his own self he cannot help. Yet he is the King of Israel! He’d better come down from the cross, and then we (incl.) will believe in him.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘He helped other people but himself he cannot help. He said he was the king of Isra’il. Na, let him come down from that post now so that we will believe in him.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “They said, ‘He set other people free, but his own body he cannot set free. So he is the King of the Jews! Let him come down from the cross, and then he’ll be followed.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘He certainly saved other people, but he is not able-to-save himself. He is reportedly the King of the descendants of Israel. If that is true, let him (lit. even if) come-down from the cross and we (excl.) will believe in him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “They were saying, ‘He can save others, but he can’t save his own body. Isn’t it so that he is the King of Israel? If he will come down now from that cross, of course we (incl.) will believe-in/obey him.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “‘That man said he would save the people. But now he isn’t able to save himself. If he truly is the king of the Jews, he would be able to come down off the cross so we would believe what he says.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Hebrews 11:15)

Following are a number of back-translations of Hebrews 11:15:

  • Uma: “It was not the village that they left the other day [lit., yesterday] that they were missing/longing-for. For if it were that village that they were missing/longing-for, they had opportunity to return to that village.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Ibrahim and company did not always think about the country they had left. Because if they had always thought about that they could have gone back there.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “As for Abraham and company, they did not also consider that their true town was that which they left behind; because if that was the case, it would have been possible for them to return there.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “And it wasn’t their former country that they had left that was in their minds, because if that had been true, they did (empathy particle) have the opportunity to return.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And it wasn’t just that land from which they came that they meant here, for if it was like that there was still opportunity for them to return there.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “But it wasn’t the land from which they came from that they were hunting. Because if it were that, then they had time to return there.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Acts 1:4)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 1:4:

  • Uma: “One time, while he was meeting with them, he gave them this command. He said to them: ‘Don’t leave Yerusalem yet. For now wait here until my Father gives you what he promised, what I said to you previously.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Once while they were gathered, he instructed them, he said, ‘Do not depart yet (dahu’) from Awrusalam. You wait first for what my Father promised which I told you about.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And one day when they were gathered together he said to them, ‘Do not go away from here, from the town of Jerusalem, but rather wait until (the end of the time) you are not yet given that which our father God promised. I told you about this before.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “One-time when they were gathered-together, Jesus commanded them, ‘Juan, he baptized people with water, but in-the-future you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit. Therefore do not leave here in Jerusalem but rather wait for the Holy Spirit who will be given-as-a-gift (lit. gifted) to you, because he is the one whom I told you before that my Father promised.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Once when the apostles were gathered together, Jesus commanded that they were not to leave Jerusalem yet. He said, ‘Wait for what the Father promised, which I have already told you.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Morelos Nahuatl: “While he was still with them he ordered them not to go from Jerusalem. He said: ‘Wait until the word happens which our Father God spoke in time past. I have already told you about that.'”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “During the time that he was still with these apostles, he told them: ‘Don’t leave the city of Jerusalem. Wait until the day comes when what God the Father established about his Holy Spirit descending will be fulfilled. It was about this I spoke to you in former days.'”
  • Lalana Chinantec:” When he was living with his sent ones, Jesus said: ‘Don’t go out of the town of Jerusalem. Stay put. Because it is necessary that you wait for the Great Spirit whom God my Father will send as I have told you. Because God my Father says that he will send you his Great Spirit.'” (Source for this and two above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

complete verse (Matthew 28:8)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 28:8:

  • Uma: “The women quickly left the grave. They were afraid, but they were also happy. Off they ran because they wanted to announce what had happened there to Yesus’ disciples.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Therefore they left quickly from the grave. They were afraid but they were also very glad. They ran to tell his disciples.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then the women quickly left the cave. They were afraid, but their breaths were filled with joy. They ran because they will tell it to the other disciples.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Therefore they then hurried to leave there afraid but at-the-same-time also very-happy, and they ran to go tell his disciples.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When the Marias heard, they then went. Fear and happiness were mixed in their minds/inner-beings. They went running to the disciples to relate it to them.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The woman at once left. They were half rejoicing, half afraid, but they ran to tell the learners what had happened.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Hebrews 12:7)

Following are a number of back-translations of Hebrews 12:7:

  • Uma: “You must endure in suffering, consider it advice or beating from your Father in heaven. God advises you like a father advises and beats his children. For there are no children who are not advised by their father.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Therefore if there are difficulties coming/caused to come to you simply endure them for these difficulties (are used by) God for teaching you because he considers you his children. Are there any children that are not punished/disciplined by their fathers for teaching them?” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Therefore, if there is anything difficult that you have to go through now, endure it. For by means of this, God is teaching you because you are his children. There is no child who is not trained by his father.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Therefore consider your (pl.) hardship as God’s advice to you and endure it, because that’s how you know that God considers you his children. Because is there indeed (rhet. quest.) a child whom his father doesn’t admonish?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Therefore just endure whatever hardship that comes to you, for that is for your correcting. As for this, it causes to be recognized that, in God’s estimation of you, you are now his children. For which child is not corrected by his parents?” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When you suffer, remember that God is doing to you as his children, that is why he whips you. Because for all the children, when they do wrong their fathers whip them.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Acts 2:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 2:10:

  • Uma: “from Frigia and Pamfilia, from Mesir and from the land of Libia that is near the town of Kirene. Some of us came from the town of Roma.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Some of us (incl.) also are from Pirigiya, from Pampiliya, from Misil, and from the places there in Libiya near the place/country of Kirene; some of us (incl.) are from Roma.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “from Phrygia, from Pamphylia, from Egypt, and those who come from villages in Libya and near Cyrene. And there are also here even people from Rome who are Jews and also not Jews who have come to believe also in the doctrine of the Jews.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “There are moreover those from-Frigia, from-Pamfilia, from-Egipto and coming-from the region of Libya near Cirene. There are also those from-Roma who are visiting here.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Frigia, Panfilia, Egipto, and places in Libia near Cirene. Even the language of these who have come from Roma, the Jews and those who have entered Judioship, who are our visitors.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Mark 1:20)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:20:

  • Uma: “He called them to follow him. So they left their father in the boat with the people with them who were employed [lit., who ate salary], and they followed Yesus.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Immediately they were called by Isa and asked by him to come along (lit. taken/carried by him). So-then they left their father in the boat and the people they were employing, and they followed now Isa.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when Jesus saw them, he called them to come with him, and then they left their father and their hired netters in the boat, and they went with Jesus.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Jesus immediately-called them, and they left their father and the men he was salarying in the boat, and they went-with Jesus too.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “They were also called by Jesus. Those two also followed (right behind) Jesus. As for their father, he was there still in the boat, left. Just his people/workers were his companions.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then they left their father Zebedee seated in the canoe. Together with the workers they abandoned him. Having abandoned him, they went together behind Jesus.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “Then He called them too and they followed in Jesus’ steps. Their father Zabdi was left behind by them in the boat with the people that receive wages.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )

complete verse (Hebrews 13:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of Hebrews 13:10:

  • Uma: “We have something [emphatic] that is better than the custom of the Yahudi religion. The Big Priest of the Yahudi religion slaughtered livestock on the worship-gift burning-place table [altar] to pay-for the sins of the people. But the priests who work in the Worship Tent long ago, they were forbidden to eat anything from that worship-gift. But we [emphatic], we can say, we have an worship-gift that is better, that is the death of Yesus to redeem our sins. Every single one of us gets goodness [salvation] from the death of Yesus.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “We (incl.) the ones trusting in Almasi have a sacrifice but the Yahudi priests in the temple have no authority to eat it.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “As for us (incl.) believers in Christ, we have a sacrifice; however, those Jewish priests who offer sacrifice in the church there in Jerusalem, they don’t have any right to eat it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Therefore those who persist in following the law of Moses, they have no right to share in our blessings that result from Jesus’ being-offered on the cross for sins.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “We who are believing/obeying Jesus, his death on the cross is the means-of-forgiving our sin. But those who still sacrifice animals which are-a-means-of-asking-for forgiveness for sin, they really have no part in the forgiveness that can-be-obtained at that cross.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “As for us, it is Jesus Christ who becomes the sacrifice which clears our sins. Now the high priest of the Jews kills animals to make sacrifices to God and there is the sacrifice of which there is not permission to eat the meat of it.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)