complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

heaven is my throne and earth my footstool

The Greek and Hebrew that is typically translated as “heaven is my throne and earth my footstool” in English is translated in the following ways:

  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “heaven is where I have my power and earth is also where I have my power”
  • Highland Popoluca: “heaven I rule, earth I rule also”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “as a chair where kings sit is heaven where I sit. As is a low stool where my feet rest, is the earth”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “if I wished, heaven could serve as my seat, and I could use the earth as a place to rest my feet if I wanted” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Kankanaey: “In heaven is where I sit to rule, and the world, that’s where-I-stretch-out-my-legs.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The heavens really are my seat in kingship. The world is just the stepping-stool of my feet,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

gave up his spirit

The Greek that is often translated as “he gave up his spirit” in English is translated in a variety of ways:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “And then he died”
  • Aguaruna: “His breath went out”
  • Navajo: “He gave back his spirit”
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “He breathed his last”
  • Chol: “He caused his spirit to leave him”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “He sent away his life breath” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Kankanaey: “He entrusted his spirit to God” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “released his spirit” (lit. caused it to spring away) (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “His spirit/breath broke” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “His breath snapped” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

complete verse (Acts 28:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 28:1:

  • Uma: “When we were all on land, only then did we know that that island was named Malta.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When we (excl.) reached the shore, somebody told us (excl.) that the name of that island was Malta.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “When we landed we learned that the name of that island was Malta.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When we (excl.) arrived at its edge, that’s when-we (excl.) -found-out that Malta was the name of the place where-we (excl.) -had-arrived.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When we had come ashore, we found out that the name of that island was apparently Malta.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 6:30)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 6:30:

  • Uma: “If there are those who ask-us-for-something, give it to them. If there are those who grab/take-away any of our stuff, don’t ask for it back.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Whoever asks you (for something), give him. And if someone takes all your things, don’t ask them back.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “If someone begs from you, give him what he asks for. And if there’s a person who snatches away your possessions, don’t you take them back.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Give to all who request from you (singular) and if someone takes your (singular) possessions, don’t tell him to return it.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “What really is good is to give to the one who is asking from you, and if someone takes your belongings(s/pl), don’t go and get it back again.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 4:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 4:10:

  • Uma: “those twenty-four elders lay-on-their-stomachs in front of him who Sits his Seat and who Lives forever to worship him. And they offered their hats to him as their respect/honor, they put [them] in front of his Seat, and they said like this:” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “the twenty four elders prostrate facing God the one who sits on the throne and they praise God who lives forever. And they place the golden crowns from their heads before the throne and they say,” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “those twenty-four elders fall down on their faces before Him and worship Him who is deathless forever. And they place their crowns in front of the seat, for they give them to God. And when they place them, they say in a loud voice,” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “the twenty four leaders kneel face-down in front of the one seated on the throne who lives forever, and they also worship him. They also put-down their crowns in front of him saying,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “as for those twenty four elders, what they did was bow down with faces low in the presence of that seat, for they also were worshipping that one sitting there, he who is alive without ending. And they also were laying down their crowns in his presence, which was their testimony that he is the highest who rules over all. What they were saying was,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “the twenty-four who were seated in the chairs surrounding where God sat, all kneeled to worship God. And they said:” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 1:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:2:

  • Uma: “That Good News was promised beforehand by God with the lips of the prophets of old, as is written in the Holy Book.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This good news God promised in old times and commanded his prophets to write in the holy-book (kitab).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “I am Paul, the one writing this. I’m a slave of Jesus Christ and he has made me also to be an apostle. God promised long ago by means of what he caused the prophets to write, that there would be a time when there would be Good News which would be made known to us (incl.) The reason he chose me to be an apostle was so that I might tell repeatedly this Good News.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “This good news, it is what God promised long ago which he caused-to-be-written by the prophets through-whom-he-spoke.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Very long ago God’s spokesmen wrote in the Holy Book that there would come the day when it would happen as is the word which is in the good news.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “A long time ago God had said that there would be such words as these. And the servants of God who lived a long time ago, that’s what they wrote about when God told them to write his words.”
  • Chicahuaxtla Triqui: “And way back when, the ones who spoke the Word of God wrote that this good word should come to the world and God Himself cause so that they should write.” (Source for this and above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (Luke 7:14)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 7:14:

  • Uma: “He went and touched the stretcher, the people-carrying-the-stretcher paused. Yesus said: ‘Young man! I order you (sing.) to get up!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then he went closer and touched the stretcher so the people carrying it stopped. Then he said, ‘Friend, get up.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “He went up to that which they were carrying and He took hold of it and then those who were carrying that dead person stopped, and Jesus said to the one they were carrying, ‘Son, get up!'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then he approached and laid-his-hands-on the coffin they were carrying so that the ones-carrying would stop. When they then stopped, he said to the dead-one, ‘Get-up child.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He approached and touched the coffin and those carrying it stood-still. Jesus spoke saying, ‘Son, go ahead! Get up!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 6:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 6:17:

  • Uma: “Because the terrifying day has arrived, the time when God and the Lamb show their anger, no-one can endure to stand in front of them.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Because the day has come when the wrath of God and the Sheep is caused to come to mankind. And nobody can endure this wrath, whoever he be.’ (lit. even who)” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Because the time has come for them to punish us humans and no one will be able to resist them.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because the important (lit. valuable) day on which they will punish us (excl.) has arrived and we (excl.) absolutely cannot endure/bear it!'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because we (excl.) have comprehended that the far-from-ordinary day has been reached when they will cause their anger to surface. Well, who could endure that?'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “It is plain now that there has arrived the day for punishment. No one get out of it,’ they said.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 2:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 2:2:

  • Uma: “We know relatives, if God punishes people who behave evilly like that, his decision is certainly true. But we have no seat [i.e., right] to criticize our companion, because if we criticize others, it is the same as criticizing ourselves, since our behavior is just like that too. So there is no way for us to make-nothing-of [lit., put downhill] our guilt.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “We (dual) know that it is right/correct/proper for God to punish the people doing those evil-things.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “We (incl.) know that God’s punishment to people who behave wickedly like this is very just. However, you who say that this behavior of people like this is very bad, you cannot escape either, because you criticize the evil behavior of another person but your behavior is also evil. Because of this when you criticize him you are criticizing also your own behavior.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because we know that God’s judging of people like that who do evil is exactly right.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “We surely know that it is right that God judges whatever evil people do.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 7:46)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 7:46:

  • Uma: “You (sing.), you (sing.) did not oil my head according to our custom for visitors. But this woman watered/poured my feet with fragrant oil that is very expensive its price.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You did not put oil on my head to honor me but this woman has covered my feet with expensive fragrant oil.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “You also did not pour oil on my head; however, this woman, very expensive perfume she has poured out on my feet.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Neither did you (singular) oil my hair, but as for her, she has anointed (poured with focus on feet) my feet with perfume.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “You also didn’t give me even everyday oil to spread-by-hand on my head. But as for her, perfume is what she has spread-by-hand on my feet.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)