God's anger, wrath of God

The Hebrew and Greek What is translated into English as “the wrath of God” (Good News Translation: “God’s anger”) has to be referred to in Bengali as judgment, punishment or whatever fits the context. In Bengali culture, anger is by definition bad and can never be predicated of God. (Source: David Clark)

In Kikuyu the whole phrase that is translated in English as “storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath” or similar is translated as “you are increasing for yourself God’s wrath.” (Source: Jan Sterk)

In Quetzaltepec Mixe it is translated with a term “that not only expresses anger, but also punishment” (source: Robert Bascom), in Western Bukidnon Manobo as “the coming punishment of God on mankind” (source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation), in Kankanaey as “God’s fearful/terrible future punishing of people” (source: Kankanaey Back Translation), in Tagbanwa as “the coming anger/hatred of God” (´source: Tagbanwa Back Translation), and in Tenango Otomi as “the punishment which will come” (saource: Tenango Otomi Back Translation).

See also anger.

complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

gave up his spirit

The Greek that is often translated as “he gave up his spirit” in English is translated in a variety of ways:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “And then he died”
  • Aguaruna: “His breath went out”
  • Navajo: “He gave back his spirit”
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “He breathed his last”
  • Chol: “He caused his spirit to leave him”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “He sent away his life breath” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Kankanaey: “He entrusted his spirit to God” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “released his spirit” (lit. caused it to spring away) (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “His spirit/breath broke” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “His breath snapped” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Indonesian: “His breath was cut off” (Common Language Translation) (Source: Daniel Arichea in The Bible Translator 1983, p. 209ff.)


The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

Other translation for the wind include “fierce wind” (Teutila Cuicatec), “wind with very much power” Eastern Highland Otomi), “violent wind” (Lalana Chinantec), or “big wind” (Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac). (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

heaven is my throne and earth my footstool

The Greek and Hebrew that is typically translated as “heaven is my throne and earth my footstool” in English is translated in the following ways:

  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “heaven is where I have my power and earth is also where I have my power”
  • Highland Popoluca: “heaven I rule, earth I rule also”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “as a chair where kings sit is heaven where I sit. As is a low stool where my feet rest, is the earth”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “if I wished, heaven could serve as my seat, and I could use the earth as a place to rest my feet if I wanted” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Kankanaey: “In heaven is where I sit to rule, and the world, that’s where-I-stretch-out-my-legs.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The heavens really are my seat in kingship. The world is just the stepping-stool of my feet,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 20:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 20:17:

  • Nyongar: “Jesus looked at them and asked, ‘What does this Scripture say? ‘The workers building the house threw away this useless stone, but now this stone has become the best stone.'” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “Yesus looked at them and he said to them: ‘Yet that is the meaning of the figure-of-speech that is in the Holy Book that says: ‘The stone that was thrown-away by the house-builder, that very stone becomes the foundation-stone.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But Isa looked at them and he said, ‘Na, what do you say is the meaning of this verse written in the holy-book it says, ‘The stone that is rejected by the experts building the stone house because they thought-mistakenly that it didn’t have any use, now that one is the stone of the greatest/utmost use.’ ‘” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “But Jesus looked carefully at them and he said, ‘If you are thinking that God would not do that, what is your understanding of that written word of God long ago that says, ‘The stone which was used in building the house was thrown away by the carpenters because they thought it had no value. But today it has become the only stone that could properly finish up the house.’ ‘ And Jesus continued speaking,” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But then Jesus looked-steadily at them and said, ‘If that is that case that it won’t happen, what then is the meaning of this that God caused-to-be-written? ‘The stone that the house builders rejected, that’s what God has turned-into the most-valuable stone which causes-the house -to-be-strong/firm.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus looked-intensely at them and he questioned. ‘Well if it’s like that,’ he said, ‘what is meant by this which was written which is the word of God which says, ‘That rock/stone which was not acceptable to the house builders, that’s what was used after all as the main-support of the house.’?” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Timothy 1:13)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 1:13:

  • Uma: “Formerly I disparaged Yesus, I was really all-out to persecute his followers. But even so, he loved me, for at that time I did not yet believe in him, so I didn’t know the meaning/use of what I was doing.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa Almasi commissioned me even though formerly I spoke evil of him, and his followers were also persecuted by me and shamed by me. But I was pitied by him even though like that was my doing because I had not yet trusted in him therefore I didn’t know that those deeds of mine were bad/evil.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “A long time ago my words concerning Him were bad; I tormented His disciples and I spoke in rejection of Him. But in spite of that, He pities me for I carried out my evil doings because of the fact that I did not yet know the true doctrine, and I did not yet believe in Him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He did that even though previously, I was-speaking-evil-about him and at-the-same-time hardshipping and insulting (him). But God had-mercy-on me anyway, because previously I had not yet believed so I didn’t know that what I was doing was bad.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “In the past, my insulting/belittling him was really far-from-ordinary, I was insolent to those who believed in him, and I persecuted them without pity. But although what I did was like that, the Lord indeed just showed me grace/mercy, because those things I did, I did because I had no belief in him. I didn’t realize that it was in fact against the will of God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “He made me his worker even though I looked on him with hate before. For I spoke evil of him and I persecuted the people who believed in him. But God was merciful to me. Because God knows that I didn’t know what I was doing when I was not yet a believer.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 21:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 21:2:

  • Nyongar: “Jesus also saw a poor widow putting two little brown coins in the box.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “He also saw a widow whose life was pitiful putting in two bronze/brass coins/money.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “There he also saw a poor widow woman who dropped two centavos (lit. two red money; the centavo pieces used to be copper coins).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “and Jesus saw also a widow-woman who was very poor, and the only thing she dropped in were two cents.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He also saw a poor widow insert (as through a slot) two five-centavos.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He also saw a poor woman who was a widow, who dropped just a few centavos.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Timothy 3:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 3:10:

  • Uma: “If there are people who want to be helpers in the Lord’s work, test their character first, and if they are above reproach [lit., not accuse-able], only then can they be appointed to do that work.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “And before they are titled to help the leader in the prayer-house their custom ought to be observed first. If it is observed that their custom is really good they can be titled to help the leader.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “If there is a person whom you choose as deacon, his behavior must be investigated first. Then if there is no bad behavior of his that you know about, he may be chosen as a deacon.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Those whom you choose to be-helping, they must first be verified/confirmed so that if no sin of their becomes-known, then it-can-be that they will serve.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Therefore make sure first of their nature/ways. And then provided nothing can be observed in their nature/ways which would make them unacceptable, well they will be acceptable to hold the responsibility/job of helper to the overseer.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “These men must first have the way they walk be seen. Then if no evil is found they can receive the position to help at the church.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 21:34)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 21:34:

  • Nyongar: “‘Watch out! Don’t just think about eating and drinking and everything of this World. That Day can quickly come and trap you!” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “‘Be-on-the-watch, don’t be busy always partying and getting drunk, or always thinking about your life in the world, with the result that you are lax on the day of my arrival. For I will come suddenly.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘You should be watching,’ said Isa. ‘Perhaps that is what you are always thinking about having fun and drinking and your troubles about your livelihood. And then suddenly the day of my return will come and you are caught/found at foolishness.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus said, ‘Be on your guard so you won’t end up having a good time and drinking and just looking for the worldly things that you need, because if you’re not on your guard you will be suddenly overtaken by God’s day of punishment for mankind. And you’ll be just like a trapped rat” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Jesus continued to say, ‘Be careful so you don’t get-sidetracked by drunkenness or other foolish behavior and you don’t become burdened by your means-of-livelihood lest you be startled-speechless by my coming.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Do be careful not to be overly fascinated with celebrations/having-happy-times and going drinking. And be careful that it isn’t the things of this life which are dominant in your mind, they being what you are always/often thinking about. For as long as it’s like that, it’s certain that you really will panic when I arrive, for you won’t be ready.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Timothy 5:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 5:10:

  • Uma: “They must be ones who clearly do good deeds, like for instance: they took good care of their children, are hospitable to passers-by, help their one-faith relatives, care for people in difficulties, and customarily do all kinds of good work. Widows like that are the ones who are fit to be cared for by the one-faith relatives.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Their good deeds ought also to be well-known, that is they raised their children well, they treat-according-to-good-custom the people who go to their house, their livers are low/humble they do even whatever for the ones belonging to God, they help the ones who are in troubles/sorrows and whatever is a good deed they do. Widows like that can be listed.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “It’s also necessary that she be well known because of her good works such as taking care of children, taking care of visitors; she has washed the feet of believers, she has helped those in trouble, and she has done all kinds of good things.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “It is also necessary that the good things they have been doing like these are well-known (lit. being-reported): they have taken-care of their children properly, they are hospitable, they have humbled (lit. lowered) themselves to serve God’s people, they have been helping people in trouble/hardship, and they have been industrious to do whatever is good.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “It is also necessary that her nature/ways are well-known to be good, like she trained her children well, welcomes people well who need to stay at her house. There’s no service to her fellow believers that she says no to. She helps those who are in hardship. And all this time, what she gives priority to is, all deeds which are good.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “They must be women who are known to do what is good, who have brought up their children well, who have given a resting place to strangers. And they must be known to be those who are not proud, and have respect for their fellow believers. They help those who suffer. They must always want to do only what is good.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 22:28)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 22:28:

  • Nyongar: “‘You have stood at my side in all the bad things which happened to me.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “‘You here, you are always with me in all my troubles.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘You are the ones who stay with me even in my troubles.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus spoke again, ‘As for you, you are going to share in all of my difficulties.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘You have had-a-share-in all my hardships, not abandoning-me,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Really as for you, you have held fast as my companions through the hardships I have experienced which were like tests of me.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)