The Greek that is translated as “casting” or “drawing lots” in English is often translated with a specific idiom, such as “to take out bamboo slips” — 規 矩 掣 籤 guījǔ chè qiān (in most Chinese Bibles), “each to pick-up which is-written (i.e. small sticks inscribed with characters and used as slots)” (Batak Toba), a term for divination by means of reed stalks (Toraja-Sa’dan). In some cases a cultural equivalent is not available, or it is felt to be unsuitable in this situation, e.g. in Ekari where “to spin acorns” has the connotation of gambling, one may have to state the fact without mentioning the means, e.g. “it came to him” (source for this and all above: Reiling / Swellengrebel). In Shipibo-Conibo there was no equivalent for “casting lots” so the translation for Mark 15:24 is descriptive: “they shook little things to decide what each one should take” (source: Nida 1952, p. 47).
In Purari it is translated as “throw shells.” (Source: David Clark)
In Kwara’ae (in Acts 1:26) it is translated as “they played something like dice to find out who of the two God chose (God revealed his will that way).” (Source: Carl Gross)
In Inupiaq a term for “gambling” is used. The same term is also used in Esther 3:7, “though there winning and losing is not in view, but rather choosing by chance.” (Source: Robert Bascom)
The Greek that is translated as “adultery” (typically understood as “marital infidelity”) in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:
- Highland Totonac: “to do something together”
- Yucateco: “pair-sin”
- Ngäbere: “robbing another’s half self-possession” (compare “fornication” which is “robbing self-possession,” that is, to rob what belongs to a person)
- Kaqchikel, Chol: “to act like a dog”
- Toraja-Sa’dan: “to measure the depth of the river of (another’s) marriage.”
- Inupiaq; “married people using what is not theirs” (compare “fornication” which is “unmarried people using what is not theirs” (source for this and all above: Bratcher / Nida)
- In Purari: “play hands with” or “play eyes with”
- In Hakha Chin the usual term for “adultery” applies only to women, so the translation for the Greek term that is translated into English as “adultery” was translated in Hakha Chin as “do not take another man’s wife and do not commit adultery.”
- In Falam Chin the term for “adultery” is the phrase for “to share breast” which relates to adultery by either sex. (Source for this and three above: David Clark)
- In Ixcatlán Mazatec a specification needs to be made to include both genders. (Source: Robert Bascom)
See also adulterer and adulteress.
In Purari society everyone marries, so the question was raised why Philip’s daughters were unmarried. The final rendering into Purari tended to imply that they were all under 18, in order to avoid the implication that they were all so undesirable that nobody wanted to marry them.
The Greek that is translated into English as something like “In him we live and move and have our being” is expressed in Purari as “In him we stand up and sit down and lie down.”
The Greek term that is translated as “essentials” or “essential rules” in English is translated in Purari as “small handful of rules.”
The Greek term that is translated as “wreath” or “flowers” into English is rendered in Purari as “tree flowers” to avoid the implication that they were shell decorations.
The Greek term that is translated into English as “brothers” is rendered into Purari as “elder brothers” in order to show respect.
In Purari there needed to be a specification on who lowered the sheet, so it said “four people.”
In Purari it was necessary to specify who washed Tabitha’s body, so to conform with their cultural expectations, they specified other women.
The Greek that is translated as “brothers and fathers” in English is translated in Purari as “younger and older brothers.”