The Greek terms that are translated as “five thousand” and “four thousand” in these verses have to be translated descriptively in some languages, such as “ant heap” (Shona) or “large/uncountable number” (Nyanja, Yao).
The Greek that is translated as “(you) foolish people” or “(you) foolish ones” is (back-) translated in a number of ways:
- Ekari: “thought not (having) people”
- Kituba, Sinhala, Marathi, Javanese: “people without sense/understanding/intelligence”
- San Blas Kuna: “people having a dark liver” (“incapable of intelligent, thoughtful behavior”) (See Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling.”)
- Batak Toba: “those short-of-mind” (“mostly referring to stupidity or ignorance in general”)
- Zarma: a word indicating a person who refuses to use the intelligence he has
- Nyanja, Yao: expressions implying intractability and willful opposition to common interests or commonly accepted ideas (source for this and above: Reiling / Swellengrebel)
- Mairasi: “(you are) beeswax” (source: Enggavoter 2004)
See also insane / fool.
The Greek that is translated as “he came to himself” or “he came to his senses” is (back-) translated in a number of ways:
- Sranan Tongo: “he came to get himself”
- Tzeltal: “his heart arrived”
- Thai (translation of 1967): “he sensed himself” (implying realization that he had done wrong)
- Kekchí: “it fell into his heart”
- Tagalog: “his self came back”
- Yaka, Chuukese, Pohnpeian: “he came to wisdom (or: became wise)”
- Kituba: “he understood himself”
- Uab Meto: “his heart came to life again”
- Kaqchikel: “he came out of his stupor”
- Lomwe, Yao: “he was turned, or, aroused (as from sleep), in his heart”
- Javanese: “he became-aware of his own condition”
- Kele: “he thought again about his affair” (source for all above: Reiling / Swellengrebel)
- Mairasi: “his own liver’s sky split” (In Mairasi, the liver is the seat of emotions) (source: Enggavoter 2004)
The phrase that is translated as “with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind” in English versions is rendered in Kahua with a term for belly/chest as the seat of the emotions.
The same phrase is translated into Kuy as “with all your heart-liver”to show the totality of one’s being. (Source: David Clark)
The whole phrase is translated in Tboli as “cause it to start from the very beginning of your stomach your loving God, for he is your place of holding.”
In Poqomchi’ (as in many other Mayan languages), the term “heart” covers both “heart” and “mind.”
(Sources: Bratcher / Nida, Reiling / Swellengrebel, and Bob Bascom [Ixcatlán Mazatec and Poqomchi’])
The Greek that is translated into English as “gnashed their teeth” or “ground their teeth” is translated in Pwo Karen as “their eyes were green/blue with anger” (source: David Clark), in Yao as “they had itchy teeth” (“meaning they very anxious to destroy him”) (source: Nida / Reyburn, p. 56), and Estado de México Otomi as “gnashed their teeth at him to show anger” (to specify their emotion) (source: John Beekman in Notes on Translation, March 1965, p. 2ff.).
See also gnashing of teeth.