apostle, apostles

The Greek term that is translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:


The Greek that is transliterated “Levites” in English (only the Contemporary English Version translates it as “temple helpers”) is translated in Ojitlán Chinantec as “temple caretakers,” Yatzachi Zapotec as “people born in the family line of Levi, people whose responsibility it was to do the work in the important church of the Israelites,” in Alekano as “servants in the sacrifice house from Jerusalem place,” and in Tenango Otomi as “helpers of priests.” (Source: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)

son of encouragement

The Greek that is translated as “son of encouragement” in English is translated as “one who makes people receive a helpful word” in Ojitlán Chinantec, “the person who makes our hearts be at peace” in Lalana Chinantec, “he will encourage us” in Isthmus Mixe, “one who enlarges (encourages) hearts” in Chichimeca-Jonaz, “one who comforts” in San Mateo del Mar Huave, “one who consoles people” in Tzotzil, and “gives gladness to those who weep” in Desano. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

complete verse (Acts 4:36)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 4:36:

  • Uma: “Yusuf also did thus. He sold his land and turned-over the buying money of his land to the apostles of Lord Yesus. That Yusuf was a Lewi person from the land of Siprus. The apostles of Lord Yesus also called him Barnabas. Its meaning, the one who strengthens hearts.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Na, there was a man there with them named Yusup, born there on the island Kiprus. He was a Yahudi, a descendant of Libi. The commissioned ones named him also Barnabas (meaning, a man who encourages the liver).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And there was one of them from Cyprus, a Jew also who was a descendant of the long ago person Levi, his name was Joseph, and the apostles titled him Barnabas which means he is able to give strength to our faith.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “That was exactly what Jose from-Cipre the descendant of Levi did. What the apostles called him was Barnabas, meaning one-who-strengthens the mind/thoughts of his companion.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Like a Levita who was Jose the taga Chipre, whom the apostles called Bernabe, which means, he was always encouraging the others.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)