of one heart and soul

The Greek that is translated as “of one heart and soul” or similar in English is translated as “like one single person in their souls” in Desano and “were all one inside” in Ayutla Mixtec. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

son of encouragement

The Greek that is translated as “son of encouragement” in English is translated as “one who makes people receive a helpful word” in Ojitlán Chinantec, “the person who makes our hearts be at peace” in Lalana Chinantec, “he will encourage us” in Isthmus Mixe, “one who enlarges (encourages) hearts” in Chichimeca-Jonaz, “one who comforts” in San Mateo del Mar Huave, “one who consoles people” in Tzotzil, and “gives gladness to those who weep” in Desano. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

witness

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “witness” in English is translated as “truly have seen” in Highland Popoluca, as “telling the truth regarding something” (Eastern Highland Otomi), as “know something” in Lalana Chinantec, as “verily know something to be the truth” in San Mateo del Mar Huave, as “we ourselves saw this,” in Desano, as “tell the truth about something” in Eastern Highland Otomi, as “know something is true because of seeing it” in Teutila Cuicatec. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

serve tables, wait at tables

The Greek that is often translated as “serve tables” or “wait at tables is translated in the following ways:

cornerstone

Bawm build with bamboo and thatch in their mountainous forests. They made the apostles and prophets become the roof ridge pole and Jesus the central uprights which support it. I asked why not the corner uprights since Greek has a term that is translated in English as ‘cornerstone.’ Bawm translators responded that the central uprights are more important than the corner ones, and Greek refers to the most important stone. (“Corner uprights” used in 1Tim 3:15.) (Source: David Clark)

In Mono, translators used “main post,” in Martu Wangka “two forked sticks with another long strong stick laid across” (see also 1 Peter 2:6-7.), and in Arrernte, the translation in 1Pet 2:7 (in English translation: “the stone . . . became the very cornerstone”) was rendered as “the foundation… continues to be the right foundation.” (Source for this and two above: Carl Gross)

Likewise, in Uripiv it also is the “post” (source: Ross McKerras) as well as in Sabaot (source Jim Leonhard in Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 50)

In Ixcatlán Mazatec it is translated with a term denoting the “the principal part of the ‘house’ (or work)” (Source: Robert Bascom), in Enlhet as “like the house-root” (source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 24ff. ), in Q’anjob’al it is translated with with the existing idiom “ear of the house.” (Source: Newberry and Kittie Cox in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 91ff. ), in Desano as “main support of the house,” and in Tataltepec Chatino as “the best stone” (source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.).

Shuar translates as “that stone was placed to the main house pole.” The Shuar use stones in house building either at the bottom of the posthole as a base for the house pole to rest on, or as chocking material around the post to hold it firm. Either function is acceptable here particularly as applied to the main house-pole. In Ocotlán Zapotec it is “master stone of the house.” This is a special stone they put into the foundation as sort of a guide stone of how the foundation is to true up. (Source: B. Moore / G. Turner in Notes on Translation 1967, p. 1ff.)

See also rock / stone, foundation on rock, and foundation.

full of grace

The Greek that is typically translated as “full of grace” in English is translated in the following ways:

enslave and maltreat

The Greek that is translates as “enslave (them) and maltreat (them)” or similar in English is translated in the following ways:

  • Lalana Chinantec: “they will become servants of other people, servant who don’t have any pay. The other people will mistreat them”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “mistreat them and force them to work for them”
  • Desano: “they will help in the work like slaves and the people will scold them and beat them hard”
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “they will be servants and have suffering”
  • Ayutla Mixtec: “will take your sons to be their property and will make them suffer”
  • Isthmus Mixe: “would be made laborers by force and be mistreated”
  • Highland Popoluca: “work them hard but not pay them” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

third hour

The Greek that is translated as “third hour (of the day)” or “nine in the morning” in English is translated in Mende as “the morning sun is only just getting strong.” (Source: John Ellington)

It is translated as “still early” in Desano, as “up-sun (9 a.m.)” in Chuj, as “still not really high sun at all” in Chichimeca-Jonaz, and as “the sun is barely gone half way to the top” in San Mateo del Mar Huave. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

beautiful before God

The Greek that is translated as “beautiful before God” in English is translated in the following ways:

vision

The Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek that is translated as “vision” in English is translated in a variety in the following languages:

  • Chol: “as if in a dream” (source: Robert Bascom)
  • Obolo: ilaak ọkpọchieen̄ or “dreaming awake” (source: Enene Enene)
  • Eastern Highland Otomi: “a showing like dreams”
  • Desano: “see in a dream what God will send”
  • Rincón Zapotec: “see what God shows”
  • Mayo: “see things from God as in a dream”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “dream how it is going to be”
  • Chuj: “like dreaming they see”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “understand what they see as if in a dream”
  • Ayutla Mixtec: “see that which will happen” (source for this and seven above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
  • Tagbanwa: “being caused to dream by God” (source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Chichewa: azidzaona zinthu m’masomphenya: “they will see things as if face-to-face” (interconfessional translation, publ. 1999) (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 69)

The Greek in the books of Revelation and Acts is translated as obq-rmwible: “look-dream” in Natügu. Brenda Boerger (in Beerle-Moor / Voinov, p. 162ff.) tells the story of that translation: “In the book of Revelation, the author, John, talks about having visions. Mr. Simon [the native language translator] and I discussed what this meant and he invented the compound verb obq-rmwible ‘look-dream’ to express it. Interestingly, during village testing no one ever had to ask what this neologism meant.”

See also see a vision.

high priest

The Greek and Hebrew that is translated as “high priest” in English is translated as “the ruler of the priests of our nation” in Yatzachi Zapotec, as “very great priest” in Chol (source: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), as “first over the priests” in Ayutla Mixtec, and “chief of the priests” in Desano (source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.).

In Uma it is translated as “Big Priest,” in Western Bukidnon Manobo as “high sacrificer,” and in Tagbanwa as “Most-important Priest of God.” (See here.)

See also priest and chief priest.

proselyte

The Greek that is often translated as “proselyte” in English is translated in various ways:

  • Isthmus Mixe: “those that entered the mind of the Israelites”
  • Desano: “people who are of the same religion as the Jews”
  • San Mateo del Mar Huave: “people who were not Jews but have come to believe as the Jewish people believe”
  • Isthmus Mixe: “those who entered the mind of the Israelites”
  • Mayo: “those who live according to Jewish custom”
  • Teutila Cuicatec: “people from other nations who believe the same as those of the nation of Israel”
  • Chuj: “those who have received the religion of the Israel people”
  • Morelos Nahuatl: “those who entered the religion of the Jews”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “those who worship God as the Israel people do”
  • Chichimeca-Jonaz: “those who joined with the Jews because they went to believing like them”
  • Falam Chin: “those who entered/joined the Jews’ religious party from other tribes” (source for this and above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)