apostle, apostles

The Greek term that is translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:


The Greek that is translated as “elder” in most English versions (“presbyter” in The Orthodox New Testament, 2000) is translated as “Old-Man Leader” in Eastern Highland Otomi (source: John Beekman in Notes on Translation November 1964, p. 1-22) and in Bacama as mi kpan-kpani vɨnə hiutə: “big/old person of house of prayer” (source: David Frank in this blog post).

Other translations include “the people who command among the people of Jesus” in Lalana Chinantec, “the old men who watched over the believers” in Morelos Nahuatl, or the ones guarding the brethren” in Isthmus Mixe. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

See also elders of the church.

complete verse (Acts 15:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 15:2:

  • Uma: “No kidding the opposition of Paulus and Barnabas contradicting that teaching of theirs. Finally the Kristen people in Antiokhia said: ‘We should send several of our companions to Yerusalem to present [lit., bring to the top] this matter to the apostles of the Lord Yesus and other elders.’ The ones they sent, were Paulus, Barnabas and several others.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Paul and Barnabas argued strongly with those people and they debated much about that teaching of theirs. Therefore the disciples of Isa in Antiyok planned-agreed that Paul and Barnabas and others of the brothers should go to Awrusalam to question the commissioned ones and the elders about that matter/problem.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Now Paul and Barnabas, they didn’t receive the teaching of these people, and their arguing with them was very strong; therefore the believers there, they sent Paul, Barnabas, and some others of them to go to Jerusalem so that they might ask about this to the apostles and to the elders of the believers there.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But Pablo and Barnabas, extreme was the way they were arguing with them. Therefore they all agreed-together that Pablo and Barnabas and some other believers would go to Jerusalem to go speak-with the apostles and leaders of the believers concerning that-aforementioned that they taught.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When Pablo and Bernabe heard, they really argued-with/challenged that teaching. Their answering-back-and-forth was intense. Therefore, when it was now like that, the believers at Antoquia decided to send Pablo and Bernabe, together with some other believers from there, to go to Jerusalem, for they would get the solution to that thing from the apostles and overseers there.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)