The Greek term that is translated as a form of “save” in English is translated in Shipibo-Conibo with a phrase that means literally “to make to live”, which combines the meaning of “to rescue” and “to deliver from danger,” but also the concept of “to heal” or “restore to health.”
In San Blas Kuna it is rendered as “to help the heart,” in Laka, it is “to take by the hand” in the meaning of “rescue” or “deliver,” in Huautla Mazatec the back-translation of the employed term is “lift out on behalf of,” in Anuak, it is “to have life because of,” in Central Mazahua “to be healed in the heart,” in Baoulé “to save his head” (meaning to rescue a person in the fullest sense), in Guerrero Amuzgo “to come out well,” and in Northwestern Dinka “to be helped as to his breath” (or “life”).(Source: Bratcher / Nida.)
The Greek that is translated in English as “brother” (in the sense of a fellow Christian) is translated with a specifically coined word in Kachin: “There are two terms for brother in Kachin. One is used to refer to a Christian brother. This term combines ‘older and younger brother.’ The other term is used specifically for addressing siblings. When one uses this term, one must specify if the older or younger person is involved. A parallel system exists for ‘sister’ as well. In [these verses], the term for ‘a Christian brother’ is used.” (Source Gam Seng Shae)
In Martu Wangka it is translated as “relative” (this is also the term that is used for “follower”.) (Source: Carl Gross)
Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 15:1:
Uma: “There were several Yahudi people from Yudea who believed in Lord Yesus who went to the town of Antiokhia. Those Yahudi people taught the followers of Yesus in Antiokhia, they taught them saying to them: ‘If you are not circumcised according to the custom in the Law of Musa, you will definitely not be freed from the punishment of your sins!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
Yakan: “Then there were some people from Yahudiya who went to Antiyok. They taught the ones trusting in Isa there. They said, ‘You cannot be saved if you are not circumcised as commanded by Musa.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
Western Bukidnon Manobo: “At that time there were Jewish believers from the province of Judea who went to the town of Antioch. And as for these people, there was that which they taught to the believers who were not Jews who were from Antioch. They said, ‘If you do not obey what was commanded to us (incl.) in the law which Moses left behind that you be circumcised, you cannot be freed from punishment.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
Kankanaey: “When that was so, there were those who came-from Judea who went to Antiok to teach those who believed. They said, ‘It is not possible that you will be saved if you don’t have-yourselves-circumcised to obey the custom that Moses taught.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
Tagbanwa: “Well, when they were now there at Antioquia some people arrived who came from Judea. When they arrived, they began to teach those who were not Jews saying, ‘Brethren, unless you have yourselves circumcized, that being what is said in the laws of Moises, you won’t be saved.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
The name that is transliterated as “Judah” or “Judea” in English (referring to the son of Jacob, the tribe, and the territory) is translated in Spanish Sign Language as “lion” (referring to Genesis 49:9 and Revelation 5:5) (Source: John Elwode in The Bible Translator 2008, p. 78ff.)
The name that is transliterated as “Moses” in English is signed in Spanish Sign Language in accordance with the depiction of Moses in the famous statue by Michelangelo (see here). (Source: John Elwode in The Bible Translator 2008, p. 78ff.)
Another depiction in Spanish Sign Language (source: Carlos Moreno Sastre):
The horns that are visible in Michelangelo’s statue are based on a passage in the Latin Vulgate translation (and many Catholic Bible translations that were translated through the 1950ies with that version as the source text). Jerome, the translator, had worked from a Hebrew text without the niqquds, the diacritical marks that signify the vowels in Hebrew and had interpreted the term קרו (k-r-n) in Exodus 34:29 as קֶ֫רֶן — keren “horned,” rather than קָרַו — karan “radiance” (describing the radiance of Moses’ head as he descends from Mount Sinai).
Even at the time of his translation, Jerome likely was not the only one making that decision as this recent article alludes to.