The Greek that is translated into English as “crucify” is translated into Naro with xgàu which literally means “to stretch” as is done with a skin after slaughtering in order to dry it. The word is also widely accepted in the churches (source: Gerrit van Steenbergen). Similarly, Balinese and Toraja-Sa’dan also translate as “stretch him” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Rendille as lakakaaha — “stretched and nailed down” (source: Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 33).
In Ghari it becomes “hammer to the cross” (source: David Clark), in Loma “fasten him to a spread-back-stick” (source: Bratcher / Nida), in Sundanese “hang him on a crossbeam” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel), in Aguaruna “fasten him to the tree,” in Navajo “nail him to the cross”, in Yatzachi Zapotec “fasten him to the cross” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), in Nyongar “kill on a tree” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang), and in Apali the different aspects of the crucifixion have to be spelled out: “nail to a tree piece put cross-wise, lift up to stand upright (for the crucified person) to die (and in some contexts: to die and rise again)” (source: Martha Wade).
Click or tap here to see a short video clip showing how crucifixion was done in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)
See also cross and hang on a tree.
Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 24:7:
- Nyongar: “‘The Son of Man must be put into the hands of evil men, killed, and three days later, rise to life’.'” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
- Uma: “He said: The Son of Man must be offered to evil people to be crucified, but on the third day he will live again.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
- Yakan: “He said hep that he, the Son of Mankind would be handed over into the hold/power of sinful people and they would nail him onto the post and on the third day he would live again.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
- Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Because he said that as for him, the older sibling of mankind, he would be turned over to wicked people and he would be nailed to a cross, and within three days he would rise again.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
- Kankanaey: “that it is necessary for the Child of a Person to be handed-over to sinners so that they will nail him to the cross, but he will live again on the third day?'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
- Tagbanwa: “Isn’t it so that he said, you-remember, ‘It’s necessary that the One From Heaven Born of Man/human be handed over to people who are sinful, and they will nail him to a cross. But on the third day he will indeed be made alive again.”” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)