complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

living oracles, living words

The Greek that is translated as “living oracles” or “living words” or similar in English is translated in the following ways:

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Uma: “‘Why do we look at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the splinter of wood in our own eye, we do not know is there!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (singular) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (singular) fellow, and you (singular) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (singular) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you (sing.) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (John 1:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:1:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The Word was living when there was still nothing at all. And that Word lived in the same place God did. And that Word was God himself.”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “When the world began, the person who is the Word was already present. He was with God and the person who is the Word was God.”
  • Chol: “In the beginning of the world there already was the Word. This Word already was with God. This Word was (and still is) God.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Long ago before anything was created, the one who is titled the Word of God already was. This Word of God, he already was with God and he is God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Before the world and heavens/sky was laid-down/spread-out (i.e. existed), there was already Jesus who is called Word/Speech of God. This one referred to as Word, he was already there in the presence of God. Not just in the presence of God but on the contrary, this Word who is Jesus, he indeed is the one who is this God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The Son of God makes it known how God is. When the world was made, already he was living. He was in fellowship with God. He also is God.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (John 12:24)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 12:24:

  • Uma: “These my words are very true: I may be compared to rice. If rice is not planted in the ground and covered up like a dead-person, it just [will stay] the same. But if it is planted, its fruit will be much.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Truly I tell you, that one grain of seed remains just one grain as long as it is not put in the soil. But when it is put in the soil already, figuratively like it has died and is buried, na then it sprouts and has much fruit.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “It is very true what I say to you, that if a seed is not buried in the earth, it cannot have offspring. And if it is buried and it sprouts, it will bear much fruit. I am the same way because if I die, many will be given new life.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Like what happens to a seed. Because this that I tell you is true that if a seed is not planted in order to thus rot and sprout, it will remain-unchanged only-one. But if it is planted and rots, then it will sprout and will bear-much -fruit.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “This is the truth which I am saying to you, an illustration of me is, like planting-seed. As for planting-seed, when it’s planted it’s like it will die because it will rot, but that’s how it will become many. But if it isn’t planted, it’s only by itself.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Truly I tell you that it is necessary that I be killed in order that many will find the new life. It is like a seed of wheat which remains just one seed when it isn’t placed in the ground. But when it is placed in the ground, the seed grows and much wheat is gathered at harvest.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Following are a number of back-translations of John 12:24:
    (In many languages it is necessary to avoid using the word ‘die’ because a dead seed will not grow.)

  • Ojitlán Chinantec: “Truly I tell you, if a grain of wheat is planted, the grain perishes when the plant comes up, but then many grains of wheat are produced. But the grain remains alone if it does not perish and come up as a plant. Also in that manner it is necessary that I die so that my people may multiply.”
  • Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac: “This is the truth. If a seed is going to give its fruit, it is necessary that it be buried in the earth. And when it is buried, first it appears as if it were destroyed, but later it will give its fruit. And thus also it will happen to me when I am buried. ” (Source for this and one above: John Beekman in Notes on Translation 12, November 1964, p. 1ff.)

Note: “In many languages it is necessary to avoid using the word ‘die’ because a dead seed will not grow.” (Source: John Beekman)

complete verse (Matthew 22:8)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 22:8:

  • Uma: “‘After that, he also called his servants, he said to them: ‘The wedding feast is ready, but the people whom I called are not fit to attend.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “After that, the sultan said to his servants, ‘The food is ready but the ones who had been invited are not worthy to come.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And the king gathered his servants, and he said, ‘The food is on the table, but those I asked to come, they are not worthy of this my gathering.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then the king said to others of his slaves, ‘Everything is made-ready for the wedding, but the people I invited, they are not worthy to come.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And he said next to others of his slaves, ‘This feast really is ready now, however as for those who were invited, they aren’t fit to join in. They are no longer acceptable.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Again he spoke to his servants: ‘I have already prepared for the wedding, but the people I have called to it do not deserve to come to it.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 18:12)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 18:12:

  • Uma: “Their merchandise were many kinds. There was gold, silver, gems [lit., eyes of rings], and pearls. There were fine clothes that were made from expensive cloth/thread, bright red and purple cloth. There were things made from fragrant wood, things made from ivory [Indonesian: gading], and other things made from expensive wood or from brass, iron, or alabaster [Indonesian: pualam].” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Nobody will buy from them gold, silver, valuable precious-stones and pearls. Nobody will buy the expensive cloths, purple and red clothes/material and silk. Nobody will buy the different kinds of wood that are difficult to be found, and the different kinds of objects made of ivory, and expensive wood and brass and iron and stone called marble.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “There is no longer anyone who can buy their merchandise; gold, silver, expensive stones, and pearls, good white cloth, and red cloth, and silk cloth, fragrant woods, things made of expensive wood and stone and ivorys and bronze and iron and marblestone,” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “There is no one to buy their gold, silver, valuable stones, and pearls. Likewise the expensive materials (i.e. cloth) that they sell such as those whose color is blue and red. Neither is there anyone to buy their fragrant wood and the miscellaneous-things made from elephant (loan elefante) tusk, valuable woods, copper, iron and beautiful stone called marbel.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “There’s no-one now who will buy their gold and silver, the expensive mined stones and far-from-ordinary beads for body decoration, and the first-class cloth, silky cloth and that which has been dyed dark-blue/purple and red. There’s no-one for them to cause to buy their nice-smelling wood, and all kinds of things made from expensive wood, horn of elepante, bronze/copper, iron and first-class white stone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “No one will buy the loads of gold or silver, or the little stones which are beautiful or pearls. They can’t sell the good cloth named line, or silk, or that of purple or red. They can’t sell the woods of different odors, nor the bone which is made into beautiful forms, or the good kinds of word, or bronze, or iron metal, or the stone which is marble.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (John 13:6)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 13:6:

  • Uma: “When he came to Simon Petrus, Petrus said: ‘Lord, are you (sing.) going to wash my feet?’ [Implies ‘You should not be the one doing this.’]” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When he came to Simon Petros, Petros said to him, ‘You, Sir, you are going to wash my feet?'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when it was already Simon, the one titled Peter, Peter said, ‘Are you going to wash my feet?'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When he arrived then at Simon Pedro, he said to Jesus, ‘Lord, you (singular) shouldn’t be the one to wash my feet.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When he reached Simon Pedro, Simon Pedro said, ‘Lord/Chief, why like that, that you are the one who will wash my feet?'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When he was about to wash Peter’s feet, Peter said, ‘Lord. Are you going to wash even my feet?'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 22:40)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 22:40:

  • Uma: “All the Lord’s Law and the teaching of the prophets hang on those two commands.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “All commandments in the law which God gave to Musa and all the teachings of the prophets are included in these two commandments.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “The whole law which was left behind for us by Moses and the teaching of the inspired ones by God long ago, they all come from these two commands.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The entire law of Moses and what the prophets wrote, they are based on these two commands.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well, these two laws, these are what all those laws which were written by Moises and what was taught by the prophets come back to.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “These two words lead over all the other words which God commands. Because concerning all the other words written by Moses and by the spokesmen for God, they merely teach the people how to love God and to love their fellowman.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 19:20)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 19:20:

  • Uma: “But instead, that evil animal along with the lying prophet were captured and the two of them were thrown alive into the sea of fire that blazes and glows/has-coals. The lying prophet [mentioned] earlier, he is the one who did/does surprising signs with the power/authority of the evil animal. From those surprising things he deceived the people who had the sign of that animal and who worshipped his idol.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The creature was caught and the prophet who is not a true one, the one who did the amazing deeds by the authority/power given to him by the creature. Because of the amazing deeds that he did, he was able to deceive hep the ones who had been marked with the mark of the creature and those who worshiped the statue of the creature. The creature and the false prophet were thrown, still living, into the sulphur fire, the fire that is wide/large like a lake.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “The beast was captured and the prophet of Satan was also captured, he who showed miracles before the beast. (By means of these miracles all the people who were marked with the mark of the beast and who worshipped the image of the beast, he deceived them so that they might believe in the beast.) And the beast and the prophet Satan were thrown still alive in the lake which flames with sulphur.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But the fearsome animal and the lying prophet who had previously shown amazing signs in his serving that animal were caught. These signs are what-he-used-to-deceive the people who were marked with the mark of the fearsome animal and who worshipped the animal-image that was his likeness. These two who were still living, they were thrown into the wide pool which is the place of flaming sulfur.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But that monster was taken captive. Taken captive also was that deceiving prophet who was caused by that animal to do amazing things. Those amazing things are what he used in his deceiving of the people who were branded with the mark of that monster and who worshipped his image. Well what else but as for those two who had been taken captive, they were thrown alive into that lake of leaping-flames of burning asupri.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “This terrible animal then was made a prisoner. Along with him was made a prisoner the lying prophet, that one who had done miracles before with the power given by the terrible animal. Because these miracles done by the lying prophet had deceived the hearts of the people who had let themselves get the mark of the terrible animal and let themselves worship his idol. Therefore this terrible animal and also the lying prophet together were thrown into the lake which burns fiercely with fire of sulphur.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (John 13:38)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 13:38:

  • Uma: “Yesus said: ‘Would you (sing.) really even die because of me. These my words are very true: Before the chicken crows, you (sing.) will already have denied that you (sing.) follow me three times.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa answered him, he said, ‘You really submit to be killed if it is because of me? Truly I tell you, the cock will not yet have crowed and you will have argued three times that you don’t know me.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus answered, ‘Will you allow yourself to be killed because of me? It’s true what I say to you, that before the chicken crows later on you will three times say that you do not know me.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Is it indeed-the-case that (RQ implying of course not) you (singular) are prepared to die for me?’ answered Jesus. ‘In-the-future indeed (prophetic formula)! Before the rooster crows, you will three-times say-in-denial that you (singular) don’t know me.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus answering again said, ‘Will you really give your life/breath because of me? This is the truth which I will say to you, before the rooster crows, three times you will deny (being associated with) me.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Then Jesus said, ‘You say that you will lay down your life for me. But truly I tell you that before the cock crows, you will deny me three times.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)