living oracles, living words

The Greek that is translated as “living oracles” or “living words” or similar in English is translated in the following ways:

centurion

The Greek that is translated as “centurion” in English is translated in Nyongar as “boss of the Roman soldiers (lit.: ‘men of fighting’)” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang), in Uma as “Roman army warchief” (source: Uma Back Translation), in Western Bukidnon Manobo as “a person who was not a Jew, the captain of a hundred soldiers” (source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation), and in Mairasi “leader of Roman warriors” (source: Enggavoter 2004).

complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Nyongar: “Why do you see the speck in your brother’s eye, but you do not see the log in your own eye?” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (sing.) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (sing.) fellow, and you (sing.) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (sing.) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you (sing.) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

Other translation for the wind include “fierce wind” (Teutila Cuicatec), “wind with very much power” Eastern Highland Otomi), “violent wind” (Lalana Chinantec), or “big wind” (Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac). (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

complete verse (John 1:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:1:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The Word was living when there was still nothing at all. And that Word lived in the same place God did. And that Word was God himself.”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “When the world began, the person who is the Word was already present. He was with God and the person who is the Word was God.”
  • Chol: “In the beginning of the world there already was the Word. This Word already was with God. This Word was (and still is) God.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Long ago before anything was created, the one who is titled the Word of God already was. This Word of God, he already was with God and he is God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Before the world and heavens/sky was laid-down/spread-out (i.e. existed), there was already Jesus who is called Word/Speech of God. This one referred to as Word, he was already there in the presence of God. Not just in the presence of God but on the contrary, this Word who is Jesus, he indeed is the one who is this God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The Son of God makes it known how God is. When the world was made, already he was living. He was in fellowship with God. He also is God.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 2:12)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 2:12:

  • Uma: “After that, God spoke to them in their dreams, he told them: ‘Don’t return to Herodes!’ So, on their return, they no longer went through Yerusalem, they avoided it going on another road.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “After this they were told by God in their dream, not to go back to Herod. So-then they returned home, following a different road.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “God caused them to understand by means of a dream that they should not return to Herod. And because of this they did not retrace the way they came as they went home.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “So then, God caused-them -to-dream, and he instructed them that they not return to Herod, so they walked-by-a-different -route to go-home to their country.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When they were to go home now, that night they were caused to dream by God who said that they weren’t to stop-by Herodes. That’s why they went on a different trail when they went home.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “After this, while these men were sleeping, God showed them that when they returned home, they must not go to where Herod was. Rather they returned by another road.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Peter 1:14)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Peter 1:14:

  • Uma: “Since God considers you his children, follow his commands, don’t keep on following your own desires like long ago when you were still in darkness.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Follow/obey the commandments of God. Don’t follow/obey the wishes of your desires like you did formerly at the time when you did not know the true teaching from God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Since we are children of God, it is necessary that we carry out his commands. The thing that we go along with should not be our evil desires which we always carried out long ago before we knew the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “You should be consistently-obedient children of God. Don’t follow the evil that you desired previously when you didn’t know God,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because we are now children of God, it is necessary that we cause ourselves to be like children who are very obedient to their Father. No longer allow the evil desires to take control which you were indulging in before when you as yet knew nothing concerning God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Do what God our Father orders you. And do not do the evil in which you lived before when you didn’t know God.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 22:71)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 22:71:

  • Nyongar: And they said, ‘We don’t need witnesses! We ourselves hear his words!'” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “From there, they said: ‘There no longer need to be witnesses! We ourselves have heard from his lips his wrongs!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then they said, ‘Why shall we (incl.) look for more/other testimony? And-what’s-more we (incl.) have already heard what he said.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then they said, ‘There’s no need that anybody else brings accusation against him, because we (incl.) have all heard his words which really transgress against God.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then they said, ‘Is it indeed-the-case (RQ implying of course not) that we need anyone to testify? Here-now emphatically we have heard what he said.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And then they all said, ‘Well, why do we still need the testimony of others, since our ears are what heard those words of his coming from no other mouth than his?'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 4:4)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 4:4:

  • Uma: “Yesus answered: ‘In the Holy Book it is written like this: ‘Mankind does not live from food alone. They live from following every word that God says.’ ‘” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa answered, he said, ‘It is written in the holy-book it says, ‘It is not just food that causes mankind to live but that is what causes mankind to live the words/speech of God.’ ‘” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus answered, ‘There is written a saying of God which says, ‘It is not only food which man lives on, he also needs every word which God speaks.’ ‘” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But Jesus answered saying, ‘The written word of God says, ‘It is not only food that is a person’s means-of-life, but rather they also need everything that God says.’ ‘” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But Jesus replying said, ‘Isn’t it so that what God said is written, which says, ‘It isn’t only food which causes a person to be able to live, but on the contrary each word which comes out from the mouth of God.”” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Jesus answered and said to the devil: ‘In the Holy Book is written the word that says ‘Concerning the person who does not want to hear what God says, even though that person eats bread, he cannot live.”” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Peter 2:21)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Peter 2:21:

  • Uma: “For that is the reason that God called you: he called you to behave well, even if you are bothered/persecuted. For Kristus also received suffering because of you, and he gave you an example so that you follow his footsteps.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Because God wants hep that you endure pain even if you have no fault. Because even Almasi endured suffering/persecution because of you and gave you an example so that you will join-in/imitate his doings.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Christ endured that which was painful so that we might be freed from punishment. And He has become a model which we must follow. The reason God caused us to believe is so that we might imitate Christ.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God called you so that you would follow a way-of-life like that. Because Cristo suffered for you, and he showed the way-of-life that you should follow-the-example-of.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “You have been chosen by God and he really has determined/planned that you are to endure hardship with a good mind/inner-being. Because really big was the hardship endured by Cristo just so that you might be saved, and therein he gave you a picture/illustration, that being what you are to copy.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Because this is what you are called to do. Christ suffered for us. That what Christ did, that is what you are to do.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 23:32)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 23:32:

  • Nyongar: “They also took out two other men, both thieves, to crucify with Jesus.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “When Yesus was taken to be crucified, there were also two other people taken with him to be killed. Those two were both people with evil behavior.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “There were also two people other than Isa taken to be killed. Those two had broken the law.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And there were also there two robbers that they were taking because they will kill them along with Jesus.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “There were also two criminals whom they took-along-with Jesus to go kill them.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The soldiers took along also two people who were criminals, for they would be killed together with Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)