apostle, apostles

The Greek term that is translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:

declared to be Son of God with power

The Greek that is translated as “(he was) declared to be Son of God with power” or similar is translated into various languages as:

  • Tzeltal: “by means of God’s power it was made evident that (Jesus) is the Son of God
  • Sayula Popoluca: “God said that he is his Son and that he has strength”
  • Hopi: “Thus God showed to the people that he was his Son, (Jesus) having received power from the Holy Spirit”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Shows that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and that Jesus Christ is powerful”
  • (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

saint

The Greek that is translated as “saint” in English is rendered into Highland Puebla Nahuatl as “those with clean hearts,” into Northwestern Dinka as “those with white hearts,” and into Western Kanjobal as “people of prayer.” (Source: Nida 1952, p. 146)

In Ixcatlán Mazatec it is translated as “followers of Jesus” (source: Robert Bascom), in Tzeltal as whom God possesses,” in Highland Totonac as “children of God,” and in Yatzachi Zapotec as “clean-hearted people” (source for this ans two above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.).

right hand of

The Greek and Hebrew that is typically translated as “(to the) right hand of” is often translated much more descriptively in other languages. In Yakan it is translated as “at the right side, here in the greatest/most important/most honored place/seat,” in Mezquital Otomi as “the right hand, at the place of honor,” in Chuj as “exalted at the right hand,” in Chichimeca-Jonaz as “in a high place there at the right,” in Lalana Chinantec as “make great,” in Isthmus Mixe as “given great authority,” in Morelos Nahuatl as “placed big” (source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August, 1966, p. 1ff), and in Teutila Cuicatec as “in all authority at the right side” (source: Ronald D. Olson in Notes on Translation January, 1968, p. 15ff.).

In Lamnso’, the seat on the right-hand side signifies that the person seated there would have a higher position than the one to his left (vs. just being a seat of honor). To circumvent any misunderstanding of the biblical text, the translation here refers to the “highest seat next to God.” (Source: Karl Grebe in Holzhausen 1991, p. 52)

gentiles

The Greek that is often translated as “gentiles” in English is often translated as a “local equivalent of ‘foreigners,'” such “the people of other lands” (Guerrero Amuzgo), “people of other towns” (Tzeltal), “people of other languages” (San Miguel El Grande Mixtec), “strange peoples” (Navajo) (this and above, see Bratcher / Nida), “outsiders” (Ekari), “people of foreign lands” (Kannada), “non-Jews” (North Alaskan Inupiatun), “people being-in-darkness” (a figurative expression for people lacking cultural or religious insight) (Toraja-Sa’dan) (source for this and three above Reiling / Swellengrebel), “from different places all people” (Martu Wangka) (source: Carl Gross).

Tzeltal translates it as “people in all different towns,” Chicahuaxtla Triqui as “the people who live all over the world,” Highland Totonac as “all the outsider people” and Sayula Popoluca “(people) in every land.” (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

See also nations.

complete verse (Romans 1:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:5:

  • Uma: “By the lips of that Yesus, God gave me a big blessing, appointing [lifting] me as his apostle [messenger], so that I take the Good News to people all over the world, teaching them to believe and submit to the Lord Yesus, so that the name of Yesus is made-big.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Because of Isa Almasi I was given work/doing by God. I was commissioned by him to proclaim the good news so that there would be some from all nations/peoples/tribes that I would carry/influence to be people trusting and following/obeying Isa Almasi so that he can-be-praised/is-praised.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Through Christ sending me, I was given wisdom and God made me an apostle, which is to say, send one, in order that Jesus might be honored. The reason that he did this was so that I might teach the people who aren’t Jews in the towns everywhere, so that they might obey and believe Jesus Christ.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because of him, God showed-me -kindness/grace and made me an apostle so that I would persuade people in all countries/towns to believe and obey Cristo so that he would be praised/honored.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Jesus Christ did me the favor of giving me the work of being his representative. He wants that in whatever land I tell the good news to the people and that they will believe, they will do what it says. By this then the people will praise Jesus Christ.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Hopi: “Because of Him, God through his pity sent me to preach in order that I might speak the good message to all people in order to persuade some. And then they will walk according to our beliefs. In doing this I make Jesus Christ very big.”
  • Central Mazahua: “Jesus Christ looked on me well. He sent me to do his work, in order that the people in the world will believe-obey, listen-obey him.”
  • Central Tarahumara: “And Jesus Christ very lovingly sent us to preach in his name, so that the people who live in all the world, believing well, should reverence Jesus Christ himself.” (Source for this and two above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (Romans 1:6)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:6:

  • Uma: “So also you Kristen people there in the village of Roma. God called you as well to become the portion of Yesus Kristus.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You (plural) the ones who are there in the place Roma are also included. You were chosen by God so that you belong to Isa Almasi.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And as for you there in the town of Rome, you’re included also in these people, for God has made a way so that you might believe and you might become the subjects of Jesus Christ.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Even you also there in Roma, you are included-with the people whom God has called/invited to be joined to Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Of these people whom God called to believe in Jesus Christ, you also were called by God to believe in Jesus Christ now.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Tzeltal: “As, for example, you whom Jesus Christ has called to himself.”
  • Highland Totonac: “And of these also were some of you who have been chosen in order that you will belong to Christ.”
  • Sayula Popoluca: “And you likewise I tell you that God called you so that Jesus Christ could make you his own.”
  • Isthmus Zapotec: “And among those people (I’ve just mentioned), you (pl.) are included because God has spoken to you that you should become Jesus Christ’s people (or followers).” (Source for this and three above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (Romans 1:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:1:

  • Uma: “This letter is from me, Paulus, the slave of Yesus Kristus. He chose me and sent/apostled me to take the Good News that is from God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This letter is from Paul being-sent there to you (plural) in the place/country Roma. I am a servant of Isa Almasi. I was chosen by God (Tuhan) and commissioned by him to proclaim his good news from him.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “I am Paul, the one writing this. I’m a slave of Jesus Christ and he has made me also to be an apostle. God promised long ago by means of what he caused the prophets to write, that there would be a time when there would be Good News which would be made known to us (incl.) The reason he chose me to be an apostle was so that I might tell repeatedly this Good News.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “I am Pablo who wrote this. I am one who is serving Cristo Jesus. God chose me to be-an-apostle and he also appointed me to go preach the good news that is from him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “I am Paul, the worker for Jesus Christ. God appointed me to be Jesus Christ’s representative. He chose me to speak God’s good news.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Highland Totonac: “I write to you. I who am Paul, Jesus Christ’s worker. I have been chosen to be his messenger and I have been appointed (placed) to preach (act as chief speaker) God’s good announcement.” (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (Romans 1:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:2:

  • Uma: “That Good News was promised beforehand by God with the lips of the prophets of old, as is written in the Holy Book.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This good news God promised in old times and commanded his prophets to write in the holy-book (kitab).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “I am Paul, the one writing this. I’m a slave of Jesus Christ and he has made me also to be an apostle. God promised long ago by means of what he caused the prophets to write, that there would be a time when there would be Good News which would be made known to us (incl.) The reason he chose me to be an apostle was so that I might tell repeatedly this Good News.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “This good news, it is what God promised long ago which he caused-to-be-written by the prophets through-whom-he-spoke.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Very long ago God’s spokesmen wrote in the Holy Book that there would come the day when it would happen as is the word which is in the good news.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “A long time ago God had said that there would be such words as these. And the servants of God who lived a long time ago, that’s what they wrote about when God told them to write his words.”
  • Chicahuaxtla Triqui: “And way back when, the ones who spoke the Word of God wrote that this good word should come to the world and God Himself cause so that they should write.” (Source for this and above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

complete verse (Romans 1:3)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:3:

  • Uma: “That Good News tells who the Child of God is, our Lord Yesus Kristus. According to his birth as mankind, Yesus is the descendant of King Daud of old. But that Yesus is also the Child of God, for he is holy the same as God. That is clear because God caused him to live again, and with that amazing sign he made-clear that he indeed is the Child of God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This good news is about God’s Child/Son, Isa Almasi, our (incl.) Leader. He was born in the world a descendant of King Da’ud when he was a human being.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “This is the news about our Lord Jesus Christ, son of God. And as for this Jesus, he became a human for he was born as a descendant of the long ago King David.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “What this good news talks-about, it is his Child Jesu Cristo who is our Lord. As concerning his personhood, he was a descendant of King David.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “This good news tells about our Lord Jesus Christ, the son of God. It tells that he became a person, and tells that he is the descendant of the ruler David.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Isthmus Zapotec: “This gospel teaches us of His son who came from among the children (family) of David at the time when he came to be a person of this world, and He is Jesus Christ our Lord.”
  • Central Tarahumara: “And this very Good Word of God speaks advising us about the Son of God, who is our Lord Jesus Christ. And here in the world Jesus Christ was born as a baby boy. And he was born as one of David’s grandsons like.” (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)
  • Hausa: “This gospel is about his Son Jesus Christ our Lord it is. By human he is from the tribe of David,” (Source: Hausa Common Language Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 1:4)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 1:4:

  • Uma: “That Good News tells who the Child of God is, our Lord Yesus Kristus. According to his birth as mankind, Yesus is the descendant of King Daud of old. But that Yesus is also the Child of God, for he is holy the same as God. That is clear because God caused him to live again, and with that amazing sign he made-clear that he indeed is the Child of God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But he is really God. By God’s power it is clear that he truly is the Child of God because he was made alive again from his death.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “As for Jesus Christ our Lord, he is the holy God because he is also the son of God, because this was shown to us by means of the great power of God which was used to raise him from the dead.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Concerning also his holy godhood, God showed that he was his Child when he made-him-alive again by-means-of his power.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “But concerning the holy soul of Jesus Christ, it clearly is apparent that he is not just a person, it is strongly apparent that he is the Son of God, because he resurrected after he died.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Central Tarahumara: “And the Very Good Spirit, God’s Spirit, raised up Jesus Christ when he was already dead. And all of the people were thus truly shown that Jesus Christ is the only Son of God.”
  • Central Mazahua : “The Spirit which comes from God caused him to arise when he had died. Thus it was made known powerfully that he is the Son of God. This is Jesus Christ who is our Lord.”
  • Chicahuaxtla Triqui: “But Christ is Son of God according to his spirit because his spirit is entirely good. And God himself has shown that Jesus is his very Son. And very powerfully did God with him when he rose from among the dead by God’s agency. And Jesus Christ has become the Lord who has authority over us.” (Source for this and two above: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)