complete verse (Acts 20:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 20:1:

  • Uma: “When the disturbance in Efesus was over, Paulus gathered the followers of Yesus and strengthened their hearts. After that he bid-farewell and continued his journey going to the land of Makedonia.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “After those troubles were over, Paul called the disciples of Isa telling them to gather. He spoke to them to encourage their livers. Then he bade them farewell (nabiya’- ask to be excused) and he went to Makedoniya.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Now as for Paul, when the people had stopped rioting, he gathered together the disciples. He preached to them so that their faith might be drawn tight, and he caused them to understand that he was about to leave. He left and he returned to the province of Macedonia.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When that-aforementioned riot/disturbance was finished, Pablo caused-to-be-gathered the believers to strengthen their mind/thoughts. He said-goodbye, then he left to go to Macedonia.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “After that trouble was finished, Pablo gathered together all the believers there. He taught them what would enable their believing/obeying to be sturdy and took leave to go to Macedonia.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)


The Greek that is often translated as “disciple” in English typically follows three types of translation: (1) those which employ a verb ‘to learn’ or ‘to be taught’, (2) those which involve an additional factor of following, or accompaniment, often in the sense of apprenticeship, and (3) those which imply imitation of the teacher.

Following are some examples (click or tap for details):

In Luang several terms with different shades of meaning are being used.

  • For Mark 2:23 and 3:7: maka nwatutu-nwaye’a re — “those that are taught” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ before the resurrection, while Jesus was still on earth teaching them.”)
  • For Acts 9:1 and 9:10: makpesiay — “those who believe.” (“This is the term used for believers and occasionally for the church, but also for referring to the disciples when tracking participants with a view to keeping them clear for the Luang readers. Although Greek has different terms for ‘believers’, ‘brothers’, and ‘church’, only one Luang word can be used in a given episode to avoid confusion. Using three different terms would imply three different sets of participants.”)
  • For Acts 6:1: mak lernohora Yesus wniatutunu-wniaye’eni — “those who follow Jesus’ teaching.” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ after Jesus returned to heaven.”)

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.