(To view the different translations of this term in a simplified graphical form on a new page, click or tap here.)
The Greek that is often translated as “disciple” in English typically follows three types of translation: (1) those which employ a verb ‘to learn’ or ‘to be taught’, (2) those which involve an additional factor of following, or accompaniment, often in the sense of apprenticeship, and (3) those which imply imitation of the teacher.
Following are some examples (click or tap for details):
- Ngäbere: “word searchers”
- Yaka: “those who learned from Jesus”
- Navajo, Western Highland Purepecha, Tepeuxila Cuicatec, Lacandon: “those who learned”
- San Miguel El Grande Mixtec: “those who studied with Jesus”
- Northern Grebo: “the ones Jesus taught”
- Toraja-Sa’dan: “children (i.e. followers) of the master”
- Indonesian: “pupils”
- Central Mazahua: “companions whom Jesus taught”
- Kipsigis, Loma, Copainalá Zoque: “apprentices” (implying continued association and learning)
- Cashibo-Cacataibo: “those who followed Jesus”
- Huautla Mazatec: “his people” (essentially his followers and is the political adherents of a leader)
- Highland Puebla Nahuatl: based on the root of “to imitate” (source for this and all above: Bratcher / Nida)
- Waorani: ones who live following Jesus” (source: Wallis 1973, p. 39)
- Javanese: “pupils” or “companions” (“a borrowing from Arabic that is a technical term for Mohammed’s close associates”)
- German: “Jünger” (“younger ones”) (source for this and one above: Reiling / Swellengrebel)
In Luang several terms with different shades of meaning are being used.
- For Mark 2:23 and 3:7: “maka nwatutu-nwaye’a re” — “those that are taught” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ before the resurrection, while Jesus was still on earth teaching them.”)
- For Acts 9:1 and 9:10: “makpesiay” — “those who believe.” (“This is the term used for believers and occasionally for the church, but also for referring to the disciples when tracking participants with a view to keeping them clear for the Luang readers. Although Greek has different terms for ‘believers’, ‘brothers’, and ‘church’, only one Luang word can be used in a given episode to avoid confusion. Using three different terms would imply three different sets of participants.”)
- For Acts 6:1: “mak lernohora Yesus wniatutunu-wniaye’eni” — “those who follow Jesus’ teaching.” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ after Jesus returned to heaven.”)
Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.