apostle, apostles

The Greek term that is translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:

cut to the heart, hearts were troubled

The Greek that is translated as “cut to the heart” or “hearts were troubled” or alike in English is translated as “it entered squeezing in their spirits” in Chuj. (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Acts 2:37)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding Peter and the apostles).

Source: Velma Pickett and Florence Cowan in Notes on Translation January 1962, p. 1ff.

brother (fellow believer)

The Greek that is translated in English as “brother” (in the sense of a fellow believer), is translated with a specifically coined word in Kachin: “There are two terms for brother in Kachin. One is used to refer to a Christian brother. This term combines ‘older and younger brother.’ The other term is used specifically for addressing siblings. When one uses this term, one must specify if the older or younger person is involved. A parallel system exists for ‘sister’ as well. In [these verses], the term for ‘a Christian brother’ is used.” (Source: Gam Seng Shae)

In Martu Wangka it is translated as “relative” (this is also the term that is used for “follower.”) (Source: Carl Gross)

See also brothers.

complete verse (Acts 2:37)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 2:37:

  • Uma: “When the people heard those words of Petrus, their hearts were sorry, and they asked Petrus and the other apostles of Lord Yesus, they said: ‘If thus, [please] what must we (excl.) do?'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When the people heard this, their livers were really troubled. They said to Petros and the other commissioned ones, ‘Brothers, what should/shall we (excl.) do?'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when the people heard this, they really repented. They said to Peter and to his companion apostles, ‘Brethren, what in the world are we to do?'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When the many-people heard what Pedro said, their repentance was great and they said to Pedro and to the other apostles, ‘Companions, what then shall we (excl.) do?'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well, when the people heard that which Pedro said, their insides really quaked for it really pierced their minds/inner-beings. Therefore they questioned Pedro and those other apostles. They said, ‘Well Friend, if it’s like that, what are we (excl.) to do now?'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)