complete verse (Acts 18:23)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 18:23:

  • Uma: “He was several days in Antiokhia, and he also left going to the lands of Galatia and Frigia, in order to strengthen the faith of the followers of the Lord Yesus there.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When he had been in Antiyok for a few days, he left and he went-to (lit. covered) all the places in Galatiya and Pirigiya, and he encouraged the livers of the disciples of Isa in those places.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when he was there for some time, he continued on again. He went through the province of Phrygia and Galatia and he drew tight the believing of the disciples of Jesus there.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When he had been-a-fairly-long-time there, he set-out again to go visit the various-towns in the region of Galacia and Frigia to strengthen the minds/thoughts of the believers.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Although there is where he was going home to, he indeed didn’t stay long, for he set out again. He went again to the places where he had taught in the districts of Galacia and Frigia. What he did was, he was making sturdy the believing/obeying of all the believers there in those lands.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)


The Greek that is often translated as “disciple” in English typically follows three types of translation: (1) those which employ a verb ‘to learn’ or ‘to be taught’, (2) those which involve an additional factor of following, or accompaniment, often in the sense of apprenticeship, and (3) those which imply imitation of the teacher.

Following are some examples (click or tap for details):

In Luang several terms with different shades of meaning are being used.

  • For Mark 2:23 and 3:7: maka nwatutu-nwaye’a re — “those that are taught” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ before the resurrection, while Jesus was still on earth teaching them.”)
  • For Acts 9:1 and 9:10: makpesiay — “those who believe.” (“This is the term used for believers and occasionally for the church, but also for referring to the disciples when tracking participants with a view to keeping them clear for the Luang readers. Although Greek has different terms for ‘believers’, ‘brothers’, and ‘church’, only one Luang word can be used in a given episode to avoid confusion. Using three different terms would imply three different sets of participants.”)
  • For Acts 6:1: mak lernohora Yesus wniatutunu-wniaye’eni — “those who follow Jesus’ teaching.” (“This is the term used for ‘disciples’ after Jesus returned to heaven.”)

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.