flesh (human nature)

The Greek that is often translated as “flesh” in English (when referring to the lower human nature) can, according to Nidq (1947, p. 153) “very rarely be literally translated into another language. ‘My meat’ or ‘my muscle’ does not make sense in most languages.” He then gives a catalog of almost 30 questions to determine a correct translation for that term.

Accordingly, the translations are very varied:

See also spirit / flesh.

eternal life

The Greek that is translated in English as “eternal life” is translated in various ways:

Lloyd Peckham explains the Mairasi translation: “In secret stories, not knowable to women nor children, there was a magical fruit of life. If referred to vaguely, without specifying the specific ‘fruit,’ it can be an expression for eternity.”

See also eternity / forever and salvation.

he who, whoever

The Greek that is typically translated with a generic expressions such as “he who,” “whoever,” or “if anyone” in English is translated with the plural form (“they”) in Daga. “A literal translation of these conveys the idea that one specific unnamed individual is being dis cussed. Thus, for instance, in John 5:24 ‘he who hears my word and believes in him who sent me has eternal life’ meant in Daga that there was one fortunate individual to whom it applied.”

See also love your neighbor as yourself.

complete verse (Galatians 6:8)

Following are a number of back-translations of Galatians 6:8:

  • Uma: “If a person continually does deeds following the evil desires of his heart, its fruit will be that he will be separated from God forever. But if a person does deeds that follow the desire of the Holy Spirit, its fruit from the Holy Spirit will be this: he will receive eternal life together with God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “If that is what he follows/obeys his greedy-desire, that will be his recompense he will die and go to hell. If that is what he follows what God’s Spirit wants/wills, his recompense will be life without end in heaven.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “If a person carries out his own desires, what he will receive is death without end. If he carries out what the Holy Spirit wants, he will be given life without end.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The one who repeatedly-plants what pleases his human mind, he will harvest punishment that is forever, but the one who repeatedly-plants what pleases the Spirit of God, he will harvest what the Spirit of God gives which is life that has no end.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Whoever plants evil, in that he keeps on indulging his congenital evil desires, there is none other that he will harvest than, his life will like rot and death which is punishment without end is where he will end up. But the one who plants good, in that he always follows/obeys the supervision of the Espiritu Santo over him, what he will harvest is life without end.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Because the person who does the evil that lights upon his heart will go to punishment. But concerning the one who follows the road taught by the Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit will give him a new life forever.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)