The Greek that is translated as “marketplace” in English is translated here in Teutila Cuicatec and San Mateo del Mar Huave as “town hall.” (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)
Following is a Russian Orthodox icon of Paul the Apostle from the first quarter of the 18th century (found in Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia).
Orthodox Icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )
See also Paul.
The term that is transliterated as “Paul” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a sign that signifies the many letters he wrote. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)
“Paul” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor
Click or tap here to see a short video clip about Paul (source: Bible Lands 2012)
See also Paul (icon).
“Hope is sometimes one of the most difficult terms to translate in the entire Bible. It is not because people do not hope for things, but so often they speak of hoping as simply ‘waiting.’ In fact, even in Spanish, the word esperar means both ‘to wait’ and ‘to hope.’ However, in many instances the purely neutral term meaning ‘to wait’ may be modified in such a way that people will understand something more of its significance. For example, in Tepeuxila Cuicatec hope is called ‘wait-desire.’ Hope is thus a blend of two activities: waiting and desiring. This is substantially the type of expectancy of which hope consists.
In Yucateco the dependence of hope is described by the phrase ‘on what it hangs.’ ‘Our hope in God’ means that ‘we hang onto God.’ The object of hope is the support of one’s expectant waiting.
In Ngäbere the phrase “resting the mind” is used. This “implies waiting and confidence, and what is a better definition of hope than ‘confident waiting’.” (Source for this and above: Nida 1952, p. 20, 133)
In Mwera “hope” and “faith” are translated with the same word: ngulupai. (Source: Pioneer Bible Translators, project-specific translation notes in Paratext)
Other languages translate as follows:
- Mairasi: “vision resting place” (source: Enggavoter 2004)
- Enlhet: “waitings of (our) innermost” (“innermost” or valhoc is a term that is frequently used in Enlhet to describe a large variety of emotions or states of mind — for other examples see here) (source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 24ff. )
- Kwang: “one’s future is restored to one’s soul like a fresh, cool breeze on a hot day.” (Source: Mark Vanderkooi right here )
- Nyongar: koort-kwidiny or “heart waiting” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
- Anjam: “looking through the horizon” (source: Albert Hoffmann in his memoirs from 1948, quoted in Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 7)
- Highland Totonac “wait with expectation” (to offset it from the every-day meaning of hope or wait — source: Hermann Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. ).
- Alekano: “wait not hearing two ears” (meaning to “wait without being double-minded” — source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation June 1986, p. 36ff.)
- Marathi aasha (आशा) with a stronger emphasis on desire
- Tamil: nampikkai (நம்பிக்கை) with a stronger emphasis on expectation (source for this and above: J.S.M. Hooper in The Bible Translator 1954, p. 2ff. )
C.M. Doke looks at a number of Bantu languages and their respective translations of “hope” with slightly varying connotations (in The Bible Translator 1954, p. 9ff. ):
- Xhosa and Zulu: themba “hope, expect,” also “have faith in, rely upon”
- Tswana: tsholofelo “hope, expect, look for confidently”
- Southern Sotho: tshepo “trust, rely on, believe in, have confidence in”
- Kuanyama: eteelelo “waiting for”
- Swahili: tumaini “confidence, trust, expectation, hope” (as a verb: “hope, trust, expect, be confident, be truthful, rely on”
- Luganda: okusuubira “hope, trust, expect” also “look forward to, rely upon, anticipate, reckon”
- Chichewa: chiyembekezo “wait for, wait, expect”
- Koongo: vuvu “hope, expectancy, expectation, anticipation”
Syntyche D. Dahou (in Christianity Today, January 2021 or see here the same article in French ) reports on the two different terms that are being used in French (click or tap here to see the details):
“Unlike English, which uses the word hope broadly, the French language uses two words that derive from the word espérer (to hope): espoir and espérance. Both can first refer to something hoped for. In this sense, the word espoir usually refers to an uncertain object; that is, someone who hopes for something in this way does not have the certainty that it will happen (“I hope the weather will be nice tomorrow”). On the other hand, espérance describes what, rightly or wrongly, is hoped for or expected with certainty. It often refers to a philosophical or eschatological object (‘I hope in the goodness of human beings’; ‘I hope for the return of Jesus Christ’).
“When we speak of espoir or espérance, we then have in mind different types of objects hoped for. This difference matters, because both terms also commonly refer to the state of mind that characterizes the hopeful. And this state of mind will be different precisely according to the object hoped for.
“Having espoir for an uncertain yet better future in these difficult times may be a good thing, but it is not enough. Such hope can be disappointed and easily fade away when our wishes and expectations (our hopes) do not materialize.
“The opposite is true with espérance, which is deeper than our desire and wish for an end to a crisis or a future without pain and suffering. To face the trials of life, we need peace and joy in our hearts that come from expecting certain happiness. This is what espérance is: a profound and stable disposition resulting from faith in the coming of what we expect. In this sense, it is similar in meaning to the English word hopefulness.
“If we have believed in the Son of the living God, we have such a hope. It rests on the infallible promises of our God, who knows the plans he has for us, his children—plans of peace and not misfortune, to give us a hope and a future (Jer. 29:11). By using the two meanings of the word, we can say that the espérance that the fulfillment of his promises represents (the object hoped for) fills us with espérance (the state of mind).”
Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 16:19:
- Uma: “From there, the owners of that woman saw that they no longer had a source of money. That’s why they grabbed Paulus and Silas and dragged them to the town judges who were in the middle of the village.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
- Yakan: “When her masters saw that they no longer had an income, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them to the leaders there at the market place.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
- Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And as for her slave owners, they knew that their means of getting money through this woman was gone. Therefore they grabbed Paul and Silas and they dragged them to the leaders of the villages who were there in the plaza.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
- Kankanaey: “When her slave owners found-out that their source of money was no-more, they grabbed Pablo and Silas, and dragged them to take them to the location of the rulers of the town.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
- Tagbanwa: “Well, when her masters observed that that woman would no longer get them money, they caught/arrested Pablo and Silas and then dragged them to the officials of that city.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)