principalities, rulers

The Greek that is translated as “principalities” or “rulers” in English is translated in various ways:


The Greek that is translated as “angel” in English versions is translated in many ways:

  • Pintupi-Luritja: ngaṉka ngurrara: “one who belongs in the sky” (source: Ken Hansen quoted in Steven 1984a, p. 116.)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “word-carriers from heaven”
  • Tetela, Kpelle, Balinese, and Chinese: “heavenly messengers”
  • Shilluk: “spirit messengers”
  • Mashco Piro: “messengers of God”
  • Batak Toba: “envoys, messengers”
  • Navajo: “holy servants” (source for this and above: Bratcher / Nida 1961)
  • Central Mazahua: “God’s workers” (source: Ronald D. Olson in Notes on Translation January, 1968, p. 15ff.)
  • Tonga (Zambia): “messenger from heaven” (source: Loewen 1980, p. 107)
  • Saramaccan: basia u Masa Gaangadu köndë or “messenger from God’s country” (source: Jabini 2015, p. 86)
  • Mairasi: atatnyev nyaa or “sent-one” (source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Shipibo-Conibo; “word bringer” (source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Apali: “God’s one with talk from the head” (“basically God’s messenger since head refers to any leader’s talk”) (source: Martha Wade)
  • Michoacán Nahuatl: “clean helper of God” (source: B. Moore / G. Turner in Notes on Translation 1967, p. 1ff.)

See also angel (Acts 12:15).

complete verse (Romans 8:38)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 8:38:

  • Uma: “For I believe there is nothing that can separate us from the love of God. Die or live, he still loves us. There is no angel or power of evil-spirits, there is nothing at this time or nothing coming in the future day, there is no power in the sky or in the earth/world, there is nothing that is able to separate us from the love of God that we get because of Kristus Yesus our Lord” (verses 38 and 39) (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “For I really know that he really loves us (incl.) very-much. Though we (dual) are alive or dead, he loves us. There is nothing which can remove his love from us. Even angel or demons they have no power to take away his love from us. Whatever we (dual) experience (lit. passes) now or in the future he loves us (dual) just the same.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And I know that there is nothing that can separate us from the big kindness to us which God has shown to us through our Lord Jesus Christ. For even while we are still alive or whether we die, His kindness cannot be removed from us. Neither the angels nor the demons can remove it. It cannot be removed by anything that takes place now or in the future. It cannot also be removed by anyone of the supernatural beings. The supernatural beings that are in the very high places and those supernatural beings who are in the very deep places, or any created thing – they cannot separate us from the kindness which God has for us, which He shows us by means of Jesus Christ who is our Lord.” (verses 38 and 39) (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because I know for-sure that absolutely nothing is able-to-separate us from his love. Whether we die or are-alive, we will still experience his love. Even angels or evil-spirits or others that have power, they aren’t capable of destroying his love for us. Even what happens today or what has not yet happened,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Therefore let us be certain that God always will love us. No suffering can take us from his loving us while we live. Neither can our being killed. Not even the angels can take it away. Neither can the devil. Because God loves us at the present time, and also the days that are to come.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Mairasi: “Because I very definitely have found out this [the following]: Very very definitely nothing can possibly separate us from Great Above One’s desiring our faces for life all spread out infinitely [eternity] since we live in the palm of Yesus Kristus’ Hand. Not even death, nor life, nor sent-ones [angels], nor powerful ones [leaders], nor punishment/difficulty of now, nor anything else which there is already, nor something else [like] other difficulties which are going to happen, nor companion spirits/gods which are in the heavens, nor deep places, nor any other being which Great Above One made, those things will not cut off [nor] stop His desire for our faces [His love for us].” (verses 38 and 39) (Source: Enggavoter 2004)