wine

The Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek that are translated as “wine” in English is translated into Pass Valley Yali as “grape juice pressed long ago (= fermented)” or “strong water” (source: Daud Soesilo). In Guhu-Samane it is also translated as “strong water” (source: Ernest L. Richert in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about wine in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also proceeds from the vine / anything that comes from the grapevine.

complete verse (Revelation 18:13)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 18:13:

  • Uma: “There was cinnamon and other spices. There were fragrant things called incense, mur and kemenyan. There was grapes/wine oil, flour for bread, and rice. There were cows, sheep, horses, carts [Indonesian: kereta], and people who were made slaves. All the things earlier were their merchandise, even including people also they sold. But when Babel was destroyed, there was no longer anyone to buy.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “And nobody will buy their other goods like spices, fragrant ointment, incense, the different perfumes, or grape juice and cooking oil and flour and it’s grain. Nobody will buy cattle and sheep, horses and the conveyances like kalesas, and people to be made slaves.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “and sweet smelling things to be eaten and burned, fragrant resins, wines, oil, flour, wheat, palay, cows, sheep, horses, calesas, and slave people.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Neither is there anyone to buy their cinnamon (Eng.), perfumed oil/ointment, incense, myrrh (mirra) and frankincense (Eng.). Likewise also their items-for-sale which are alcoholic-beverages, vegetable-oil, finest flour, wheat, cattle and sheep, horses and carriages, and even people whom they sell for slaves.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “There’s now no-one who will buy flavorings for foods, and incense and other perfumes, ubas fruit juice drink, oil of olibo, flour and wheat. No-one now can be caused to buy their cows, sheep, horses and vehicles which are drawn by horses. Even their fellowmen which they are trading which they are causing to be slaves, they will no longer be bought.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “No one will buy the loads of cinnamon, or the things which smell beautifully. The incenses which are burned, the myrrh, the perfume, the wine, the oil, the fine wheat flour. No one will buy cattle or sheep or horses. No one will buy wagons. No one will buy people to do their work without giving them wages.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)