apostle, apostles

The Greek term that is usually translated as “apostle(s)” in English is (back-) translated in the following ways:

Scot McKnight (in The Second Testament, publ. 2023) translates it into English as commissioner.

In American Sign Language it is translated with a combination of the signs for “following” plus the sign for “authority” to differentiate it from disciple. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)

“apostles” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

the last supper (icon)

Following is a contemporary Ukrainian Orthodox icon of the last supper by Ulyana Tomkevych.


Orthodox Icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

complete verse (Luke 22:14)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 22:14:

  • Nyongar: “When the moment came, Jesus and his disciples went to the table and sat down.” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “When the time to eat the Paskah food had really come, Yesus sat with his disciples in that house.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When the time of the feast had come Isa and his apostles sat down to eat.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when it was time for supper, Jesus sat down with his apostles to eat.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When the right hour arrived, Jesus sat-down-with his apostles to eat.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When the hour/time had now arrived, Jesus sat down at the eating-place together with his disciples.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

the last supper (image)

Click here to see the image in higher resolution.

Willy Wiedmann, the artist, commented on this picture: “In spite of some difficulty, and unlike Leonardo da Vinci [see here ] I did not set my last supper in a theatrical scene with Jesus in the center behind an elongated table with all the disciples, with two at each end so that that there are 11 seated behind the table. And not like the panel by Juan de Juanes (1623-79) [see here ] in which the six disciples left and right are very dynamic figures. And also not like Martin Schongauer’s Last Supper [see here ] with a slightly shorter table (also incidentally very similar to Juanes in the attitudes of the figures) and two figures seen from the back in the foreground of the panel. Instead I have given the Master the middle place to the foreground, with his back to us to finally leave the controversial Jesus-existential questions unanswered. Slightly symbolically it means that he is leaving his world. The iris color is meant to transfer the rainbow to Jesus, that God once linked to Noah (my kingdom is not of this world). I attempted to present answers that correspond to the characters of each individual.”

Image and text taken from the Wiedmann Bible. For more information about the images and ways to adopt them, see here .

For other images of Willy Wiedmann paintings in TIPs, see here.


Painting by Wang Suda 王肅達 (1910-1963),
Copyright by the Catholic University Peking, China.

Text under painting translated from Literary Chinese into English:

Beginning of the Holy Communion
You have this as food and this is my body.

Image taken from Chinese Christian Posters . For more information on the “Ars Sacra Pekinensis” school of art, see this article , for other artworks of that school in TIPs, see here.

Translation commentary on Luke 22:14


hote egeneto hē hōra ‘when the hour came.’ hē hōra probably refers to the traditional hour of beginning the passover meal.

anepesen ‘he sat down,’ ‘he took his place at the table,’ cf. on 11.37.

hoi apostoloi sun autō ‘the apostles (sat down) with him,’ with anepeson understood. For apostolos cf. on 6.13.


When the hour came, or, ‘when it was time to eat (it/the passover meal).’

Sat at table, i.e. ‘sat down to eat,’ cf. on 5.29. The aspect is ingressive.

And the apostles with him, or, ‘sat down with him’; or, in apposition to the subject, ‘he…, together with the apostles.’ Apostles (see on 6.13) is rather exceptional in this context, but to render it by the more usual ‘disciples,’ as some versions do, is not advisable.

Quoted with permission from Reiling, J. and Swellengrebel, J.L. A Handbook on the Gospel of Luke. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1971. For this and other handbooks for translators see here . Make sure to also consult the Handbook on the Gospel of Mark for parallel or similar verses.