The Greek that is translated in English as “wounds” is translated into Folopa as nopulu daayale tiki: “where the clubs stood” (= wounds caused by clubs).

Translator Neil Anderson tells the story on how this was decided:

I knew no word for wounds and I had a difficult time getting one. I said, “The word is for things like sores, but they’re not sores; it’s like injuries, but not accidental.”

They were trying to grasp it. “Read it again,” they said. So I read it again, explaining as I went.

“These thieves had jumped him,” I said, “and he’s down, and now he’s lying there with these . . . problems . . . these results of what was perpetrated upon him. But what’s the word?”

“What did they use on him?”

“I don’t know what they used on him. What does it matter?”

“We have to know what they used on him or we can’t tell you the word.”

“Why not?”

“Because it all depends. If he was speared we say, ‘where the spear stood;’ if he was shot with an arrow we say, where the arrow stood;’ if he was axed we say, ‘where the axe stood.’ You tell us what they used on him and well tell you how to say it.”

Apparently there was no generic word for “wounds” and this was the best we were going to do. The only trouble was, Scripture didn’t tell how it happened. In the original telling, it wasn’t important.

So we tried to figure it out.

“Let’s say it was a spear,” I said.

“Okay,” the old ones said, the ones with the most experience with this kind of thing, “did the man live?”

“Yes, he lived,” I said.

“Then it wasn’t a spear. If it was a spear he would have most likely died.”

“Maybe it was an arrow,” I offered.

“No, if it had been by arrows they would have pulled them out. Does it say anything about pulling arrows out?”

“No. What about a dagger?”

“No,” they said, “if it had been a dagger he probably would have never recovered either.”

“Then what about an ax?”

“No way. If they had axed him that would have been the end of him right then!”

“Well then, maybe they just beat him up with their hands,” I said.

“No,” they protested, “when you do that the person may be covered with lumps and bumps but there’s nothing open, nothing for the Samaritan to pour medicine into.”

“Then you tell me,” I said.

“Well, he was lying there on the road, half dead, bleeding but still alive. He must have been beaten with clubs.” With general agreement on that I wrote it down: nopulu daayale tiki “where the clubs stood.” We were off and moving again.

(Source: Anderson / Moore 2006, p. 165ff.)


The Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek that are translated as “wine” in English is translated into Pass Valley Yali as “grape juice pressed long ago (= fermented)” or “strong water” (source: Daud Soesilo). In Guhu-Samane it is also translated as “strong water” (source: Ernest L. Richert in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about wine in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also proceeds from the vine / anything that comes from the grapevine.

complete verse (Luke 10:34)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 10:34:

  • Uma: “He went close to him, he cleaned his wounds with oil and wine and bandaged/wrapped them. After that he caused-him-to-ride on his keledai and he took him to a visitor house, and he took-care of him there.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “He went close there and treated his wounds with oil and grape water and then bound them up. Then he lifted him and put him on his animal and brought him to the rest-house and cared for him there.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “He went over to him, and medicined his wounds with oil and wine and he wrapped them up with cloth. And then he picked him up and put him on his horse, and took him to a house where people overnight, and there he carefully took care of him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “and he went to where he was and medicined his wounds with coconut-oil and alcoholic-beverage while-also wrapping-them-up. Then he put him (lit. had him ride) on his horse and took him to the place-where-people -overnighted to take-care of him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He approached and medicined the wounds of that person with drink/alcoholic-drink and oil and then bandaged them. After bandaging, he caused that person to ride on the animal he was/had-been riding. He took him to a house-where-one-can-stay where one pays to sleep, and looked after him there.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)