full inclusion

The Greek that is translated in English as “full inclusion” or similar is translated as “return to their place” in Isthmus Zapotec, as “be called back by God” in Tzeltal, as “when they believe well” in Central Tarahumara, as “when God reinstates them” in Yatzachi Zapotec, and as “when they again become many who believe” in Chicahuaxtla Triqui. (Source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)

transgression, trespass

The Greek that is often translated as “trespass” or “transgression” in English is translated as “missing the commandment” in Kipsigis and “to step beyond the law” in Navajo. (Source: Bratcher / Nida 1961)

In Tepeuxila Cuicatec it is translated as “thing not reached.” Marjorie Davis (in The Bible Translator 1952, p. 34ff.) explains: “[This] implies that the goal was not reached, the task was not finished, or of finished, it was not satisfactorily done. According to the Cuicateco way of thinking of one does not what is expected of him, he offends [or: trespasses] and is an offence.”


The Greek that is often translated as “gentiles” in English is often translated as a “local equivalent of ‘foreigners,'” such as “the people of other lands” (Guerrero Amuzgo), “people of other towns” (Tzeltal), “people of other languages” (San Miguel El Grande Mixtec), “strange peoples” (Navajo) (this and above, see Bratcher / Nida), “outsiders” (Ekari), “people of foreign lands” (Kannada), “non-Jews” (North Alaskan Inupiatun), “people being-in-darkness” (a figurative expression for people lacking cultural or religious insight) (Toraja-Sa’dan) (source for this and three above Reiling / Swellengrebel), “from different places all people” (Martu Wangka) (source: Carl Gross).

Tzeltal translates it as “people in all different towns,” Chicahuaxtla Triqui as “the people who live all over the world,” Highland Totonac as “all the outsider people,” Sayula Popoluca as “(people) in every land” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.), Chichimeca-Jonaz as “foreign people who are not Jews,” Sierra de Juárez Zapotec as “people of other nations” (source of this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.), Highland Totonac as “outsider people” (source: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.), Uma as “people who are not the descendants of Israel” (source: Uma Back Translation), and Yakan as “the other tribes” (source: Yakan Back Translation).

See also nations.

complete verse (Romans 11:12)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 11:12:

  • Uma: “Most of the Jews were rebellious/rejecting and they are not God’s portion. And from there many non-Jews over the whole world got big blessings from God. So how much more will be the blessedness of the contents of the world if/when the Jews repent and return to God!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “If the Yahudi nation is sinning and God is rejecting them turns out (mole’) to the good of the nations not Yahudi, really much more good will come to the not Yahudi when the Yahudi return to God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “So by means of the disobedience of the Jews, which is their not believing, God has blessed with good all mankind. And by means also of the fact that God’s blessing to the Jews had been removed from them, how greatly God has shown to the people who aren’t Jews, His kindness. And if that’s the case, how much greater will be the good which the people who aren’t Jews will receive at the time in the future when the Jews return to their believing.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Let us consider this then: if the collective-people on this earth were exceedingly blessed on account of the sin of the Jews and their loss (i.e. what they lost), surely they will be even-more blessed when/if the proper number of Jews will be saved.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “In that the Jews separated from God, there came about that all the people are not Jews all over the world encountered God’s blessing. But when there comes the day when also the Jews will believe in Christ, God overflowingly will bless all the people all over the world.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)