doubt

The Greek and Hebrew that is translated as “doubt” in English versions is translated with a term in Tzeltal that means “heart is gone.” (Nida 1952, p. 122)

In other languages it is represented by a variety of idiomatic renderings, and in the majority of instances the concept of duality is present, e.g. “to make his heart two” (Kekchí), “to be with two hearts” (Punu), “to stand two” (Sierra de Juárez Zapotec), “to be two” or “to have two minds” (Navajo), “to think something else” (Tabasco Chontal), “to think two different things” (Shipibo-Conibo), “to have two thoughts” (Yaka and Huallaga Huánuco Quechua), or “two-things-soul” (Yucateco).

In some languages, however, doubt is expressed without reference to the concept of “two” or “otherness,” such as “to have whirling words in one’s heart” (Chol), “his thoughts are not on it” (Baoulé), or “to have a hard heart” (Piro). (Source: Bratcher / Nida, except for Yucateco: Nida 1947, p. 229 and Huallaga Huánuco Quechua: Nida 1952, p. 123)

In Chokwekwalajala is ‘to doubt.’ It is the repetitive of kuala, ‘to spread out in order, to lay (as a table), to make (as a bed),’ and is connected with kualula ‘to count.’ [It is therefore like] a person in doubt as one who can’t get a thing in proper order, who lays it out one way but goes back again and again and tries it other ways. It is connected with uncertainty, hesitation, lack of an orderly grasp of the ‘count’ of the subject.” (Source: D. B. Long in The Bible Translator 1952, p. 87ff.)

rhetorical use of first person plural pronoun

The Greek that is translated as “We should not commit sexual immorality” is translated in Sierra de Juárez Zapotec as “You should not commit sexual immorality.”

John Beekman (in Notes on Translation 19, 1965, p. 1-10) explains that in the Pauline epistles “a passage [often] starts out in the second person [and is then] changed to the first person to spare the readers of any negative reactions to the mention of their actual state. In most passages where Paul includes himself, the correction or warning that is given is sufficiently general in nature to apply to any believer. In some passages, however, the content of the injunctions are rather specific and perhaps not applicable to such an one as Paul, especially if they carry negative implications concerning his conduct. The Sierra de Juárez Zapotec language helper objected to the first person form used in 1 Corinthians 10:8 on the grounds that it suggested that Paul was at that time indulging in immorality; or actively contemplating it. This was changed to second person.”