The Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek that are translated as “wine” in English is translated into Pass Valley Yali as “grape juice pressed long ago (= fermented)” or “strong water” (source: Daud Soesilo). In Guhu-Samane it is also translated as “strong water” (source: Ernest L. Richert in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about wine in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also proceeds from the vine / anything that comes from the grapevine.

brother (fellow Christian)

The Greek that is translated in English as “brother” (in the sense of a fellow Christian) is translated with a specifically coined word in Kachin: “There are two terms for brother in Kachin. One is used to refer to a Christian brother. This term combines ‘older and younger brother.’ The other term is used specifically for addressing siblings. When one uses this term, one must specify if the older or younger person is involved. A parallel system exists for ‘sister’ as well. In [these verses], the term for ‘a Christian brother’ is used.” (Source Gam Seng Shae)

In Martu Wangka it is translated as “relative” (this is also the term that is used for “follower”.) (Source: Carl Gross)

See also brothers.

complete verse (Romans 14:21)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 14:21:

  • Uma: “It’s better that we no longer eat meat or drink intoxicants or do anything that will cause [lit., carry] our one-faith relative to sin.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This is what is good to do, whatever is your viand or your drink or your deed, if your fellow-(men) is caused to sin (by it) don’t really do (it).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “What is good behavior is; let’s not eat food which some consider to be forbidden, and let’s not drink wine. And let’s not do anything if by means of it anyone can be successfully tempted.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “It would be preferable if we didn’t eat meat or drink liquor or do even anything that would lead to the sinning of our fellow believer.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “It is better that we do not eat meat nor drink wine or that we do not want to do anything that would cause our brothers to sin. We must not do what would spoil their faith.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)