The Greek that is often translated as “deacon” in English is translated as kavumbi in Chokwe, someone “who serves another, not from compulsion or for a wage, but because of vumbi or grace.”

(Source: D. B. Long in The Bible Translator 1952, p. 87ff.)


The Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek that are translated as “wine” in English is translated into Pass Valley Yali as “grape juice pressed long ago (= fermented)” or “strong water” (source: Daud Soesilo). In Guhu-Samane it is also translated as “strong water” (source: Ernest L. Richert in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about wine in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also proceeds from the vine / anything that comes from the grapevine.

complete verse (1 Timothy 3:8)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Timothy 3:8:

  • Uma: “Thus also is the character that is required of people who become helpers in the Lord’s work. Their character must be clear [i.e., wise, mature] and fit to be honored. They must not be liars, they must not be ones who drink too much intoxicants, and they must not be ones who think only about money.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then about the persons titled also to help the leader in the prayer-house, their custom must also be good and they should be trustworthy. They ought not drink what causes drunkenness and they ought not to be greedy for money.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “In the same way also should be the deacons, which is to say, those who help the believers; their behavior must be good. They must be respected people; they fulfill what they say they are going to do. They are not drunkards, and they do not cheat in order to get wealth.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “As-for those who may-be-chosen as helpers of the leaders, it is also/similarly necessary that they be worthy to be respected and not double-tongued (lit. tongues not turned-inside-out). They must not be drunkards and being-greedy-for (lit. grabbing-after) money.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well as for these helpers of these overseers, it’s also necessary that they have good natures/ways, that they are respected by others. It’s necessary that whatever they say is true, they aren’t a slave to intoxicating-drink, and not a person who does anything at all which isn’t good just so as to make-money.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Concerning the people who have the position of helping at the church, they also must do like that, they must be good people. They must not deceive in their speech. They must not be drunkards. They must not have their hearts set only on money.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)