wine

The Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek that are translated as “wine” in English is translated into Pass Valley Yali as “grape juice pressed long ago (= fermented)” or “strong water” (source: Daud Soesilo). In Guhu-Samane it is also translated as “strong water” (source: Ernest L. Richert in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 198ff.).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about wine in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also proceeds from the vine / anything that comes from the grapevine.

complete verse (Titus 2:3)

Following are a number of back-translations of Titus 2:3:

  • Uma: “So also old women, teach them so that their actions are like people who submit to the Lord God, not speaking evil of others, not addicted to drinking intoxicants, and faithful in teaching others to make-good their actions.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Like that also teach to the old women. Their customs ought to be good so that God is pleased with them. They should not slander their companions and not habitually-drink (alcoholic understood). Their teachings should be good.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “What you teach to the older women is just the same. God must always be pleased with their deeds. They are not gossips, they are not habitual drinkers of wine. They must always teach good deeds” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “As for the collective-older-women moreover, advise them also to follow a holy lifestyle that is appropriate to their faith. Advise them also not to speak-evil-of their companions or get-drunk, but rather that they teach what is good” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Like that too are the old/mature women. Teach them that it’s necessary that they always live lives in harmony with the will of God. They are not to be gossipers, not a slave to intoxicating-drink. On the contrary, they are to be explaining/making-clear the nature/ways which please God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “And also the old women, tell them that they should live so as to be respected. They are not to bite in their speaking. They are not to be drunkards. All that is good, they are to show.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)