The Greek that is translated “scripture” or “scriptures” in English is translated as “God’s word which people wrote” in Guerrero Amuzgo. (Source: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125)
For other translations of scripture see all scripture is inspired by God.
Following are a number of back-translations of John 7:42:
- Uma: “In the Holy Book it is written: The Redeemer King is a descendant of King Daud, and will appear from Betlehem town, the birth town of Daud.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
- Yakan: “The holy-book says hep that the Almasi is a descendant of King Da’ud and he should be born in the village of Betlehem for that is the place of King Da’ud.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
- Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Because there is a written word of God which says that the king whom God chose, he will be the descendant of the long ago King David, and he will be born, it is said, in the village of Bethlehem which was also the village long ago of King David.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
- Kankanaey: “Because what God caused-to-be-written says that the Messiah will be reportedly descended from King David and he will reportedly be born in Betlehem the town of David.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
- Tagbanwa: “For isn’t it indeed contained in our handed-down writings which are the Word of God, saying, ‘This Cristo, where he will come out from is the descendants of David, and where he will come from is Betlehem which is the town of David.”” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
- Tenango Otomi: “It says in the Holy Book that the Christ is the descendant of King David. And he is a native of Bethlehem where David was from.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
The name that is transliterated as “David” in English is translated in Spanish Sign Language with the sign signifying a sling and king (referring to 1 Samuel 17:49 and 2 Samuel 5:4). (Source: John Elwode in The Bible Translator 2008, p. 78ff.)
“David” in Spanish Sign Language (source)
The (Protestant) Chinese transliteration of “David” is 大卫 (衛) / Dàwèi which carries an additional meaning of “Great Protector.”
Click or tap here to see a short video clip about David (source: Bible Lands 2012)
The Greek Christos (Χρηστός) is typically transliterated when it appears together with Iésous (Ἰησοῦς) (Jesus). In English the transliteration is the Anglicized “Christ,” whereas in many other languages it is based on the Greek or Latin as “Kristus,” “Cristo,” or similar.
When used as a descriptive term in the New Testament — as it’s typically done in the gospels (with the possible exceptions of for instance John 1:17 and 17:3) — Christos is seen as the Greek translation of the Hebrew mashiaḥ (המשיח) (“anointed”). Accordingly, a transliteration of mashiaḥ is used, either as “Messiah” or based on the Greek or Latin as a form of “Messias.”
This transliteration is also used in the two instances where the Greek term Μεσσίας (Messias) is used in John 1:41 and 4:25.
In some languages and some translations, the term “Messiah” is supplemented with an explanation. Such as in the German Gute Nachricht with “the Messiah, the promised savior” (Wir haben den Messias gefunden, den versprochenen Retter) or in Muna with “Messiah, the Saving King” (Mesias, Omputo Fosalamatino) (source: René van den Berg).
In predominantly Muslim areas or for Bible translations for a Muslim target group, Christos is usually transliterated from the Arabic al-Masih (ٱلْمَسِيحِ) — “Messiah.” In most cases, this practice corresponds with languages that also use a form of the Arabic Isa (عيسى) for Jesus (see Jesus). There are some exceptions, though, including modern translations in Arabic which use Yasua (يَسُوعَ) (coming from the Aramaic Yēšūa’) alongside a transliteration of al-Masih, Hausa which uses Yesu but Almahisu, and some Fula languages (Adamawa Fulfulde, Nigerian Fulfulde, and Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde) which also use a form of Iésous (Yeesu) but Almasiihu (or Almasiifu) for Christos.
Other solutions that are used by a number of languages include these:
- Dobel: “the important one that God had appointed to come” (source: Jock Hughes)
- Mairasi: “King of not dying for life all mashed out infinitely” (for “mashed out,” see salvation; source: Lloyd Peckham)
- Bacama: Ma Pwa a Ngɨltən: “the one God has chosen” (source: David Frank in this blog post)
- Binumarien: Anutuna: originally a term that was used for a man that was blessed by elders for a task by the laying on of hands (source: Desmond Oatridges, Holzhausen 1991, p. 49f.)
- Uab Meto: Neno Anan: “Son of heaven” P. Middelkoop explains: “The idea of heavenly power bestowed on a Timorese king is rendered in the title Neno Anan. It is based on the historical fact that chiefs in general came from overseas and they who come thence are believed to have come down from heaven, from the land beyond the sea, that means the sphere of God and the ghosts of the dead. The symbolical act of anointing has been made subservient to the revelation of an eternal truth and when the term Neno Anan is used as a translation thereof, it also is made subservient to a new revelation of God in Jesus Christ. The very fact that Jesus came from heaven makes this translation hit the mark.” (source. P. Middelkoop in The Bible Translator 1953, p. 183ff.)