complete verse (Mark 2:25)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 2:25:

  • Uma: “Yesus said: ‘Have you not read what King Daud did long ago when Abyatar was/became High Priest? When Daud and his friends were hungry and there was nothing for them to eat, he entered into the worship house and ate the bread that was offered/sacrificed to God, and he also distributed it to his companions. According to the customs of our religion, it is only priests who are allowed to eat that bread. But even so, this behavior of Daud was not considered-wrong. ‘” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa answered, he said, ‘Have you not read as to what King Da’ud did at the time when Imam Abiyatar was the leading priest? Da’ud and his companions were hungry hep and they had no food.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus answered, ‘It is not possible that you have not read in the long ago writings what David did. He and his soldiers were having a difficult time because they were hungry.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Jesus answered saying, ‘You have certainly read what King David and his companions did when they became-hungry.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus answered them, saying, ‘Haven’t you yet read what was done by king David in the past, when he and his companions were hungered?” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)


The name that is transliterated as “David” in English is translated in Spanish Sign Language with the sign signifying a sling and king (referring to 1 Samuel 17:49 and 2 Samuel 5:4). (Source: John Elwode in The Bible Translator 2008, p. 78ff.)

“David” in Spanish Sign Language (source)

The (Protestant) Chinese transliteration of “David” is 大卫 (衛) / Dàwèi which carries an additional meaning of “Great Protector.”

Click or tap here to see a short video clip about David (source: Bible Lands 2012)

formal pronoun: Jesus addressing religious leaders

Like many languages (but unlike Greek or Hebrew or English), Tuvan uses a formal vs. informal 2nd person pronoun (a familiar vs. a respectful “you”). Unlike other languages that have this feature, however, the translators of the Tuvan Bible have attempted to be very consistent in using the different forms of address in every case a 2nd person pronoun has to be used in the translation of the biblical text.

As Voinov shows in Pronominal Theology in Translating the Gospels (in: The Bible Translator 2002, p. 210ff.), the choice to use either of the pronouns many times involved theological judgment. While the formal pronoun can signal personal distance or a social/power distance between the speaker and addressee, the informal pronoun can indicate familiarity or social/power equality between speaker and addressee.

Here, Jesus is addressing religious leaders with the formal pronoun, showing respect. Compare that with the typical address with the informal pronoun of the religious leaders.

The only two exceptions to this are Luke 7:40/43 and 10:26 where Jesus uses the informal pronoun as a response to the sycophantic use of the formal pronoun by the religious leaders (see formal pronoun: religious leaders addressing Jesus).

In most Dutch translations, the same distinctions are made, with the exception of Luke 10:26 where Jesus is using the formal pronoun.