demon

The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

complete verse (Mark 1:32)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:32:

  • Uma: “That late-afternoon , the sun was setting, many people came to Yesus bringing all who were sick or possessed by demons.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When the sun had set, the people brought to Isa whoever was sick and those people (who were) demon possessed.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when the sun had gone down, all the sick and the afflicted with demons were brought by people to Jesus.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “As the sun was going-down, the inhabitants brought to Jesus all who were possessed by evil-spirits and the sick.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When the sun set, all who were sick and were possessed by evil spirits were brought to Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “When it was late, when the sun had already entered, they brought to Jesus, all the sick, the demoned ones.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “When it was evening and the sun had set, all the sick people and those that were possessed by demons were brought before Jesus.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )