The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.

judge (noun)

The Greek that is translated as “judge” in English is translated in Nyongar as birdiyar djonanykarinyang or “boss of testing/judgement” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang).

See also judge.

complete verse (Luke 11:19)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 11:19:

  • Nyongar: “If I drive them out that way, how do your disciples drive them out? Your own disciples show that you are wrong!” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Uma: “But there are also your own companions who expel demons. With what authority do your companions expel demons. Surely with the authority of God. So, from the deeds of your own companions, it is clear that your false-charges are wrong.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “If this is true, with whose power do your disciples drive out demons? They will be the ones who say that your thinking is at fault.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “If the power that I use to drive away demons really comes from Satan, then where does the power that your companions use to drive away demons, come from? By means of the activity of your disciples, it can be known that you are mistaken.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “If that is true, how then have your disciples been causing-evil-spirits -to-leave? Even they, they will confirm that what you are saying is mistaken!” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But supposing it’s true that I drive out evil spirits by the ability/means of Beelzebub, well where does the ability come from of your followers who can also drive out evil spirits? They are the ones who can testify that you have really made a mistake.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Kabwa: “Well, if it is true that, me I chase out demons by the authority of Beelzebul, now your students they chase out [demons] by the authority of whom?”
  • Suba-Simbiti: “But if me I chase out a demon by the authority of Beelzebul, your students also chase out demons by the authority of Beelzebul?” (Source for this and above: R.M. Mészároš in Journal of Translation 18/2022, p. 115ff. )

formal pronoun: Jesus addressing his disciples and common people

Like many languages (but unlike Greek or Hebrew or English), Tuvan uses a formal vs. informal 2nd person pronoun (a familiar vs. a respectful “you”). Unlike other languages that have this feature, however, the translators of the Tuvan Bible have attempted to be very consistent in using the different forms of address in every case a 2nd person pronoun has to be used in the translation of the biblical text.

As Voinov shows in Pronominal Theology in Translating the Gospels (in: The Bible Translator 2002, p. 210ff.), the choice to use either of the pronouns many times involved theological judgment. While the formal pronoun can signal personal distance or a social/power distance between the speaker and addressee, the informal pronoun can indicate familiarity or social/power equality between speaker and addressee.

Here, Jesus is addressing his disciples, individuals and/or crowds with the formal pronoun, showing respect.

In most Dutch translations, Jesus addresses his disciples and common people with the informal pronoun, whereas they address him with the formal form.