The Greek that is translated into English as “crucify” is translated into Naro with xgàu which literally means “to stretch” as is done with a skin after slaughtering in order to dry it. The word is also widely accepted in the churches. (Source: Gerrit van Steenbergen)

Similarly, Balinese and Toraja-Sa’dan also translate as “stretch him” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel) and in Rendille as lakakaaha — “stretched and nailed down” (source: Holzhausen / Riderer 2010, p. 33).

In Ghari it becomes “hammer to the cross” (source: David Clark), in Loma “fasten him to a spread-back-stick” (source: Bratcher / Nida), in Sundanese “hang him on a crossbeam” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel), in Aguaruna “fasten him to the tree,” in Navajo “nail him to the cross”, in Yatzachi Zapotec “fasten him to the cross” (source for this and two above (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), and in Apali the different aspects of the crucifixion have to be spelled out: “nail to a tree piece put cross-wise, lift up to stand upright (for the crucified person) to die (and in some contexts: to die and rise again)” (source: Martha Wade).

Click or tap here to see a short video clip showing how crucifixion was done in biblical times (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also cross.

complete verse (John 19:16)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 19:16:

  • Uma: “Finally Pilatus offered/gave Yesus to them to be crucified. From there, soldiers took Yesus off to be crucified.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then Pilatus handed Isa over to them so that they nailed him on the post to kill (him).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then Pilate permitted that Jesus be nailed to the cross. And they brought Jesus” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “That being so, he handed-over Jesus to them to be nailed on the cross.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Therefore Pilato then went along with the will of those Judio, in that he caused Jesus to be delivered to those who would nail him to a cross. The soldiers then took charge of Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “After this was said, Pilate delivered him to go and be put on the cross. The Jews took him.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)