eternity, forever, forever and ever

The Greek that is typically translated as “eternity,” “forever,” or “forever and ever” in English are translated in Mairasi as “mashed out infinitely.” Lloyd Peckham explains: “Bark cloth required pounding. It got longer and wider as it got pounded. Similarly, life gets pounded or mashed to lengthen it into infinity. Tubers also get mashed into the standard way of serving the staple food, like the fufu of Uganda, or like poi of Hawaii. It spreads out into infinity.” (Source: Lloyd Peckham)

In Lisu the phrase “forever and ever” is translated as ꓕꓲꓽ ꓞꓲꓼ ꓕꓲ ꓑ — thi tsi thi pa, verbatim translated as “one – lifetime – one – world.” This construction follows a traditional four-couplet construct in oral Lisu poetry that is usually in the form ABAC or ABCB. (Source: Arrington 2020, p. 57f.)

See also eternal life and salvation.

high priest

The Greek that is translated as “high priest” in English is translated as “the ruler of the priests of our nation” in Yatzachi Zapotec, as “very great priest” in Chol (source: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), as “first over the priests” in Ayutla Mixtec, and “chief of the priests” in Desano (source for this and one above: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.).

See also complete verse (Acts 23:4) et al.

complete verse (Hebrews 7:28)

Following are a number of back-translations of Hebrews 7:28:

  • Uma: “People who are/become Big Priests according to the Law of Musa are people who are weak, for they are just ordinary man[kind]. But after the Law of Musa, God uttered words of an oath, and with the words of that oath of his, he appointed [lit., lifted] his own Child to be Big Priest. And that Child of his became a Redeemer that has no lack and who remains forever.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God that was given to Musa in old times said as to who could become high priest and the ones commissioned to be priests were humans having faults. But after that, God commissioned his Son, Isa and he added an oath. His Son has no fault/blemish and he is priest forever.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Those who were made high priests by means of the Law left behind by Moses, there was always something to rebuke them for. But a long time after that, the Son of God became a priest because God chose Him and because of the promise of God which replaced the former Law. And as for this Jesus, the son of God, there was nothing to rebuke Him for. He became a priest whose priesthood is forever.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because according to the law of Moses, those who are appointed highest priests, they are people who have faults. But according to what God swore which came-after the law, the one who was appointed, it was his Child who became a priest who has no faults/lack forever.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “According to the laws of Moises, from among the people is the choosing place of each Most-important Priest, even though they are sinful for they are indeed men/human. But when a long time had passed from the giving of the laws to Moises, God made a vow, that his Son Jesus is whom he appointed to be Most-important Priest. Because Jesus followed/obeyed without any lack all that God had determined for the saving of people. Therefore he is the Most-important Priest who is standing up for us perfectly for ever. 7:17 Psalm 110:4. 7:21 Psalm 110:4.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The law which Moses wrote appoints to be the high priest one of the people who have sin. After this law was given, however, God himself became witness to the word he said, appointing his Son to be high priest forever. And there is not a bit lacking in him, he does good forever that work.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)


The Greek that is translated in English as “Law” or “law” is translated in Mairasi as oro nasinggiei or “prohibited things.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)

In Yucateco the phrase that is used for “law” is “ordered-word” (for “commandment,” it is “spoken-word”) (source: Nida 1947, p. 198) and in Central Tarahumara it is “writing-command.” (wsource: Waterhouse / Parrott in Notes on Translation October 1967, p. 1ff.)