The Greek that is typically translated/transliterated in English as “demon” is translated in Central Mazahua as “the evil spirit(s) of the devil” (source: Ellis Deibler in Notes on Translation July, 1967, p. 5ff.).

In Sissala it is translated with kaŋtɔŋ, which traditionally referred to “either a spirit of natural phenomena such as trees, rivers, stones, etc., or the spirit of a deceased person that has not been taken into the realm of the dead. Kaŋtɔŋ can be good or evil. Evil kaŋtɔŋ can bring much harm to people and are feared accordingly. A kaŋtɔŋ can also dwell in a person living on this earth. A person possessed by kaŋtɔŋ does not behave normally.” (Source: Regina Blass in Holzhausen 1991, p. 48f.)

In Umiray Dumaget Agta it is translated as hayup or “creature, animal, general term for any non-human creature, whether natural or supernatural.” Thomas Headland (in: Notes on Translation, September 1971, p. 17ff.) explains some more: “There are several types of supernatural creatures, or spirit beings which are designated by the generic term hayup. Just as we have several terms in English for various spirit beings (elves, fairies, goblins, demons, imps, pixies) so have the Dumagats. And just as you will find vast disagreement and vagueness among English informants as to the differences between pixies and imps, etc., so you will find that no two Dumagats will agree as to the form and function of their different spirit beings.” This term can also be used in a verb form: hayupen: “creatured” or “to be killed, made sick, or crazy by a spirit.

In Yala it is translated as yapri̍ija ɔdwɔ̄bi̍ or “bad Yaprija.” Yaprijas are traditional spirits that have a range presumed activities including giving or withholding gifts, giving and protecting children, causing death and disease and rewarding good behavior. (Source: Eugene Bunkowske in Notes on Translation 78/1980, p. 36ff.)

See also devil and formal pronoun: demons or Satan addressing Jesus.


The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “blind” in English is translated as “(having) eyes dark/night” in Ekari or “having no eyes” in Zarma. (Source: Nida 1964, p. 200)

See also blind (Luke 4:18).

complete verse (Matthew 12:22)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 12:22:

  • Uma: “After that, there were also people who came to Yesus bringing a person who was possessed [lit., ridden]. That person was blind and he was not able to speak. Yesus healed him, with the result that he could see and was able to speak.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then a person was brought to Isa who was blind and dumb because he was possessed by a demon. He was healed by Isa that’s why he could speak and see now.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then some people came bringing with them a man who was blind and dumb because he had been entered by a demon. Jesus treated him and immediately he was able to talk and able to see.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “One time, there were some who brought to Jesus a man who was blind and dumb because an evil-spirit possessed him. Jesus caused-the evil-spirit -to-leave, and that man could-see and could talk.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And then there was brought to Jesus a man who was blind and dumb too, for he was possessed by an evil spirit. Jesus healed the man who could then speak and see.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “A man whom an evil spirit had caused to be dumb and blind was brought to Jesus to be healed. When he was healed, then the man could speak and see.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)