Jesus heals a boy

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ask / inquire (Japanese honorifics)

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way to do this is through the usage (or a lack) of an honorific prefix as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017.

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “ask” in English is translated in the Shinkaiyaku Bible as o-tazune (お尋ね), combining “inquire” (tazune) with the respectful prefix o-.

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )

See also ask / request (Japanese honorifics) and humble form of “ask” (ukagau).

Mark 9:14 - 29 in Mexican Sign Language

Following is the translation of Mark 9:14-29 into Mexican Sign Language with back-translations into Spanish and English underneath:


© La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

Retrotraducciones en español (haga clic o pulse aquí)

Jesús les advirtió: “En el futuro cercano, los ancianos judíos, los líderes de los sacerdotes y los maestros de la Ley, que no creen en el Hijo del Hombre, lo rechazarán.
Los tres discípulos acordaron a guardar el secreto y Jesús bajó y los discípulos también bajaron. Dijeron uno al otro: “¿Qué significaría resucitar?” “No entiendo.” “Yo tampoco.”

Mientras caminaban pensaron de algo y dijeron: “Jesús, te preguntamos ¿porqué nos dicen los maestros de la Ley que primero vendrá Elías y después el Cristo?”

Jesús (respondió): “Esto es verdad, primero viene Elías para preparar las cosas para que estén listos cuando después viene el Cristo.

Pero ya ha venido Elúas y las personas eran en contra de él, y Elías ha sufrido exactamente como está escrito en el rollo.

En la misma manera el Hijo de Hombre sufrirá y las personas lo rechazarán.”

Jesús y los tres discípulos llegaron caminando y vieron un grupo de maestros de la Ley alrededor de los discípulos, y estaban discutiendo con ellos.

Muchas personas etsaban viendo y se volvieron a ver con sorpresa que Jesús había venido y todos fueron a él y lo saludaron, y Jesús los saludó (preguntando): “¿Qué pasó que están discutiendo?”

Un hombre vino diciendo: “Mi hijo no puede hablar porque tiene un demonio adentro de él. Muchas veces he visto que se cae en el suelo convulsionando, crujiendo sus dientes, con saliva en su cara.”

Ahorita traje my hijo buscando a Jesús, pero no estabas y ya dije a tus discípulos que expulsaran el demonio, pero no lo podían.

Un grupo de los maestros de la Ley vino y están discutiendolo, por eso.”

Jesús (dijo): “Ay, todas estas personas no creen nada. ¿Cómo voy a seguir más estar junto con ellos?, estoy cansado.

Que venga tu hijo.” Las personas ayudaron a recoger al joven.

El demonio adentro vio a Jesús “caray” y estaba revolcando en el suelo convulsionando con saliva en su cara.

Jesús miró hacia abajo y dijo: ¿Cuánto tiempo lo ha tenido?” (El hombre respondió): “Creciendo tenía lo mismo, antes mi hijo ha caído revolcando en el fuego y también ha caído en el agua y casi se hundió.

Yo lo veía muchas veces y descubrí que mi hijo tiene un demonio adentro, que quiere maltratarlo para que muere. Nosotros dos estamos sufriendo, por favor ten compasión, quizá puedes ayudarnos, por favor.”

Jesús (dijo): “¿Quizá puedo? No, tú cree que sí y se puede todo.”

(El hombre respondió): “Sí creo, pero aún tengo dudas en mi mente, ayudame a quitar las dudas.”

Jesús miró alrededor y vio una multitud de gente viniendo, miró al hombre revolcando en el suelo y regañó el demonio: “tú, que cierras su oído de modo que no puede hablar, ahorita te expulso, no lo entres otra vez, jamás.”

Dentro del joven que estaba revolcando en el suelo el domonio gritó y salió, y quedó acostado con sus ojos cerrados.

Las personas que lo vieren (dijeron): “El está muerto.” Pero Jesús lo tomó de la mano y se paró.

Después Jesús y los discípulos fueron a la casa y los discípulos preguntaron: “¿Porqué nosotros no podíamos expulsar el demonio, cómo es?”

Jesús (dijo): “Este demonio es muy fuerte, uds necesitan orar para poder expulsar un demonio, a uds les falta que no hacen oración, es por eso.”


Jesus and the three disciples walked on and arrived and saw a group of teachers of the Law standing around the disciples and they were arguing with them.

Many people were watching and they turned around and were surprised to see that Jesus had come, and they all went to him and greeted him and Jesus greeted them (asking): “What has happened that they are arguing?”

A man came up saying: “My son cannot speak because he has a demon inside him. Many times I have seen him fall in the floor, convulsing, gnashing his teeth with salive running down his face.”

Just now I brought my son searching for Jesus but you were not there and I told your disciples to drive out the demon but they could not.

A group of teachers of the Law came and they are arguing about it, that’s why.”

Jesus (said): “Oh no, all these people have no faith at all. How am I going to continue being with them? I am tired.

Let your son come.” The people helped to bring the young man.

The demon inside saw Jesus “Oh no” and he lay writhing on the ground, convulsing and with saliva running down his face.

Jesus looked down and said: “How much time has he been like this?” (The man answered): “He has had this growing up, before now my son has fallen in the fire convulsing, and he also has fallen in water and almost drowned.

I have watched him time and again and realized that my son has a demon inside him who wants to mistreat him so that he dies. Both of us are suffering, please take pity on us, maybe you can help us, please.”

Jesus (said): “Maybe I can? No, you need to believe and then everything is possible.”

(The man answered): “Yes I believe, but I still have doubts in my mind, help me and take away the doubts.”

Jesus looked around and saw a great multitude of people coming, he looked at the man writhing on the ground and told off the demon: “You who close his ears so that he cannot speak, I throw you out right now, and do not enter him ever again.”

From inside the young man who was writhing on the ground the demon screamed and went out of him and he lay on the ground with his eyes closed.

The people who saw it (said): “He is dead.” But Jesus took him by the hand and he got up.

Afterwards Jesus and the disciples went home and the disciples asked: “Why could we not throw out the demon, how is that?”

Jesus (said): “This demon is very strong, you need to pray in order to be able to throw out a demon, what’s lacking is that you don’t pray at all, that’s why.”

Source: La Biblia en LSM / La Palabra de Dios

<< Mark 9:2-13 in Mexican Sign Language
Mark 9:30-32 in Mexican Sign Language >>

complete verse (Mark 9:16)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 9:16:

  • Uma: “Yesus asked them: ‘What were you questioning back and forth about with those religion teachers?'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa asked his disciples, he said, ‘What are you arguing/discussing with them?'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus asked his disciples, he said, ‘What are you arguing about?'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘What were you arguing-about with them?’ questioned Jesus.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘What are you arguing with them about?’ asked Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

formal pronoun: Jesus addressing his disciples and common people

Like many languages (but unlike Greek or Hebrew or English), Tuvan uses a formal vs. informal 2nd person pronoun (a familiar vs. a respectful “you”). Unlike other languages that have this feature, however, the translators of the Tuvan Bible have attempted to be very consistent in using the different forms of address in every case a 2nd person pronoun has to be used in the translation of the biblical text.

As Voinov shows in Pronominal Theology in Translating the Gospels (in: The Bible Translator 2002, p. 210ff.), the choice to use either of the pronouns many times involved theological judgment. While the formal pronoun can signal personal distance or a social/power distance between the speaker and addressee, the informal pronoun can indicate familiarity or social/power equality between speaker and addressee.

Here, Jesus is addressing his disciples, individuals and/or crowds with the formal pronoun, showing respect.

In most Dutch translations, Jesus addresses his disciples and common people with the informal pronoun, whereas they address him with the formal form.

Mark 9 as chanted Injil

The following is an audio representation of a chanted Injil (Gospel) of Mark 9 in Arabic with a back-translation into English underneath:


© Al Kalima (source )

1 And he added: “I tell you the truth: There are some among you who will see the appearance of the divine Kingdom in power before they pass away!”

2 After six days, Sayyidna Isa gathered Peter and James and John, and went alone with them to the top of a huge, tall mountain, and there he was revealed to them in a great spectacle,
3 in white clothes that dazzled the eyes with whiteness that humans are unable to achieve,
4 and there appeared to them the prophet Musa and the prophet Ilyas and they began speaking deeply with Sayyidna Isa.
5-6 This thing gripped the hearts of the apostles, and Peter drew near to Sayyidna Isa and said: “Master and sovereign, our remaining here is very good! We will set up three shrines: a shrine for you, and a shrine for the prophet Musa, and a shrine for the prophet Ilyas.”
7 Then a cloud overshadowed them and a voice came to them from the clouds: “This is the Beloved, my spiritual Son, he is the one that you must listen to and obey!”
8 And they were surprised when they turned to look around them, for they did not find anyone except for Sayyidna Isa with them.
9 Then they went down towards the foot of the mountain mentioned, and during their descent Sayyidna Isa asked them to conceal the things they had seen, until the resurrection of the Master of humanity from the graves,
10 so they hid the matter holding strongly to it, but their minds were overcome with confusion about the meaning of the resurrection of the Master of humanity from among the dead,
11 and so they asked him about this, saying: “Why do the experts in the Torah say that the coming of the prophet Ilyas will be before the coming of the awaited Messiah?”
12 So he answered them saying: “Yes, the prophet Ilyas will come first and reform the things of humanity. But the Book of God also says that the Master of humanity will encounter harm from people and they will completely reject him.
13 And I tell you that Ilyas really did come, but they mistreated him, as the prophets said in their books previously.”

14 Sayyidna Isa and his three apostles returned to the foot of the mountain, and he saw the remainder of his followers who were awaiting him deeply involved with a group in an argument, and they were arguing with the scholars of the Torah.
15 No sooner did the crowd see him than they were astonished and hurried to greet him.
16 So he asked the scholars of the Torah: “What are you arguing with my followers about?”
17 So a man among them spoke up and said: “Teacher, I brought my son to you who is afflicted by a demon, which caused him to be mute,
18 and it increases his torment when it throws him down, so that the gnashing of the boy’s teeth can be heard, then he froths and foams and becomes rigid from the bitter torment. So when I learned about the arrival of your followers, I asked them to cast the demon out of my son, but they were unable to do so.”
19 Sayyidna Isa turned to the crowd upbraiding them: “Nation gone astray! Do you think that I will stay with you forever? Until when shall I bear your lack of faith in me and my followers? Bring the boy immediately.”
20 So the boy was brought, and as soon as the demon possessing him saw him, the boy stumbled, and fell down and rolled around and the foam came to his lips and froth.
21 So Sayyidna Isa addressed the father of the boy with the question: “Since when has your boy been suffering from this stubborn affliction?!” So the father answered him saying: “Since he was a child,
22 he has been experiencing different harms from the demon possessing him, for it sometimes was throwing him into the fire, or in the water other times, trying to destroy him! I ask you, if you are able to do something, that you have pity on us and take this ordeal away from us!”
23 Sayyidna Isa answered him saying: “Do you say, if I am able? But everything is possible if you trust in me, for the one who believes in me will receive what he wants!”
24 The father shouted weeping: “I believe in you, so help me that my faith increases in this healing!”
25 Sayyidna Isa noticed the people coming to him from every direction, so he right away addressed the demon possessing the boy, rebuking it: “Mute spirit, I command you to come out of the boy, and not to enter him ever again!”
26 The demon responded to the commands of Sayyidna Isa forcibly, and was disappointed and trembled, and slipped out of him with a movement that made him fall down so that he succumbed falling as if he had departed this life, and the crowd thought that the boy had actually died.
27 But Sayyidna Isa went to the boy and raised him up and so he rose healed.
28 And Sayyidna Isa went to the house, and then his followers were alone with him and asked him: “Why were we unable to cast out that demonic spirit?!”
29 So Sayyidna Isa answered them and said: “You are not able by yourselves to cast out this kind of demon, rather casting it out is through asking the help of God the Lord of all.”

30 Then Sayyidna Isa and his followers left and went through Galilee. And he did not want that anyone would know he was there,
31 because he wanted to tell his followers more about his teachings and guide [them], so he said to them: “The Master of humanity will be betrayed by being handed over to evildoing oppressors, and they will kill him but God will raise him after three days from the dead.”
32 None of his followers understood what he said, but they did not ask him because they were afraid to ask him.

33 Sayyidna Isa went with his followers after this to the town of Capernaum. And when they arrived to the usual place where they were staying, he turned to them inquiring: “What were you arguing about on the way?”
34 Silence overcame them, because they were arguing together about the greatest person in their group.
35 Then Sayyidna sat, and called his twelve apostles to himself and said: “Whoever among you wants to be great, let him be a servant to everyone and the last of men.”
36 And he took a child, and had him stand among them, and then held him to himself saying:
37 “Whoever receives my messenger even if he is a child, has received me, and whoever receives me receives God who has sent me.”

38 John asked Sayyidna Isa saying: “Teacher and master: we saw a man ridding people of demons by the obeyed authority of your name, so we forbade him because he is not from the group of followers!”
39 So he turned to him saying: “Let no one forbid him to do that! For whoever does a miracle in the power of my name will not afterwards speak badly of me.
40 For whoever is not against us is with us.”
41 He continued saying: “I tell you the truth, whoever renders a favor for you, even a drink of water because you belong to me because I am the awaited Messiah, not a bit of [his] wage will be lost with God.”

42 Then he continued saying: “But whoever leads even a little believer astray, he will bear his sin. It will be better for him then to carry a millstone around his neck, and to plunge into the sea, than to commit such a thing.
43-48 Sin is destructive to a person, so close the doors to it, and cut off your hand if it is a cause. Amputate your leg if it leads you to the depths of sin. Tear out your eye if it looks with a sinful looking, for it is far far better to arrive at the Day of Reckoning with one hand or one leg or one eye and to enter Bliss with eternal life, than to arrive with two of them and be cast into the fire of hell afterwards, when the fire does not go out and the worm does not die at all.
49 Those gone astray will burn in the fire, just as a sacrifice is purified with salt among the priests.
50 So the likeness of my followers in this world is like good salt. Does salt lose it saltiness? Because if it loses it, who can restore it? My followers, keep the covenant of bread and salt that we ate together, and be peaceable with one another.”

Back-translation © Al Kalima

Translation commentary on Mark 9:16

Text:

Instead of (the first) autous ‘them’ of all modern editions of the Greek text, Textus Receptus has tous grammateis ‘the scribes.’

Exegesis:

autous ‘them’: to whom did Jesus direct his question? The text allows two or possibly three alternatives: (1) the disciples: inasmuch as in v. 14 it is said that Jesus came to his disciples, around whom there was a great crowd and with whom scribes were arguing, it would seem natural that Jesus should ask them the question (so Bengel); (2) the scribes: copyists who introduced into some manuscripts the words tous grammateis ‘the scribes’ (see Text, above), understood them to be the ones to whom Jesus spoke (so F. C. Grant); (3) the crowd: since one of the crowd answers (next verse), the majority of commentators (Gould, Swete, Lagrange, Taylor and others) assume that the crowd was being addressed. If so, the question ‘What are you discussing with them?’ must be taken in a general sense, since it was not the crowd but the scribes who were discussing with the disciples. Of the three alternatives the context favors the first one: Jesus would be more likely to question his disciples than the scribes (or the crowd).

The majority of translations have simply ‘he asked them,’ undefined, carrying over the same ambiguity that exists in the Greek text.

pros autous ‘with them’: who is referred to here depends on the interpretation given autous ‘them.’ If ‘them’ refers to the crowd or to the scribes, ‘with them’ refers to the disciples; if, on the other hand, ‘them’ refers to the disciples, as is probable, ‘with them’ refers to the scribes. For this second autous Kilpatrick has heautous, translated ‘among yourselves.’

Translation:

The fact that one person in the crowd should respond to the question of Jesus does not seem to be particularly strange, even though Jesus may have directed his words to the disciples, for obviously the action of the man in question was what had prompted the discussion with the scribes. One can, of course, attempt to reproduce the ambiguity of the Greek text, though in some languages this is not possible.

Quoted with permission from Bratcher, Robert G. and Nida, Eugene A. A Handbook on the Gospel of Mark. (UBS Handbook Series). New York: UBS, 1961. For this and other handbooks for translators see here .

formal second person plural pronoun

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

One way Japanese show different degree of politeness is through the choice of a formal plural suffix to the second person pronoun (“you” and its various forms) as shown here in the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017.

In these verses, anata-gata (あなたがた) is used, combining the second person pronoun anata and the plural suffix -gata to create a formal plural pronoun (“you” [plural] in English).

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )